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01.12.2010 | SPECIAL ISSUE ARTICLE | Sonderheft 1/2010 Open Access

Investigational New Drugs 1/2010

The DAC system and associations with multiple myeloma

Zeitschrift:
Investigational New Drugs > Sonderheft 1/2010
Autoren:
Enrique M. Ocio, Jesús F. San Miguel

Summary

Despite the clear progress achieved in recent years in the treatment of MM, most patients eventually relapse and therefore novel therapeutic options are still necessary for these patients. In this regard, several drugs that target specific mechanisms of the tumor cells are currently being explored in the preclinical and clinical setting. This manuscripts offers a review of the rationale and current status of the antimyeloma activity of one of the most relevant examples of these targeted drugs: deacetylase inhibitors (DACi). Several studies have demonstrated the prooncogenic activity of deacetylases (DACs) through the targeting not only of histones but also of non histone proteins relevant to tumor progression, such as p53, E2F family members, Bcl-6, Hsp90, HIF-1α or Nur77. This fact together with the DACs overexpression present in several tumors, has prompted the development of some DACi with potential antitumor effect. This situation is also evident in the case of MM as two mechanisms of DACi, the inhibition of the epigenetic inactivation of p53 and the blockade of the unfolded protein response, through the inhibition of the aggressome formation (by targeting DAC6) and the inactivation of the chaperone system (by acetylating HSP-90), provides the rationale for the exploration of the potential antimyeloma activity of these compounds. Several DACi with different chemical structure and different selectivity for targeting the DAC families have been tested in MM. Their preclinical activity in monotherapy has been quite exciting and has been described to be mediated by various mechanisms: the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest mainly by the upregulation of p21; the interferece with the interaction between plasma cells and the microenvironment, by reducing the expression and signalling of several cytokines or by inhibiting angiogenesis. Finally they also have a role in protecting murine models from myeloma bone disease. Neverteless, the clinical activity in monotherapy of these drugs in relapsed/refractory MM patients has been very modest. This has prompted the development of combinations such as the one with bortezomib or lenalidomide and dexamethasone, which have already been taken into the clinics with positive preliminary results.

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