The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12877-017-0468-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Positive psychology research in dementia care has largely been confined to the qualitative literature because of the lack of robust outcome measures. The aim of this study was to develop positive psychology outcome measures for people with dementia.
Two measures were each developed in four stages. Firstly, literature reviews were conducted to identify and operationalise salient positive psychology themes in the qualitative literature and to examine existing measures of positive psychology. Secondly, themes were discussed within a qualitative study to add content validity for identified concepts (n = 17). Thirdly, draft measures were submitted to a panel of experts for feedback (n = 6). Finally, measures were used in a small-scale pilot study (n = 33) to establish psychometric properties.
Salient positive psychology themes were identified as hope, resilience, a sense of independence and social engagement. Existing measures of hope and resilience were adapted to form the Positive Psychology Outcome Measure (PPOM). Due to the inter-relatedness of independence and engagement for people with dementia, 28 items were developed for a new scale of Engagement and Independence in Dementia Questionnaire (EID-Q) following extensive qualitative work. Both measures demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (α = .849 and α = .907 respectively) and convergent validity.
Two new positive psychology outcome measures were developed using a robust four-stage procedure. Preliminary psychometric data was adequate and the measures were easy to use, and acceptable for people with dementia.
Additional file 1: The Engagement and Independence in Dementia Questionnaire (EIDQ) and Positive Psychology Outcome Measure (PPOM). Description of Data: The EID-Q (26-item) and the PPOM (16-item). Both are answered on a 5-point Likert scale, with a timescale of the previous month. (DOCX 107 kb)12877_2017_468_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Shankar KK, Walker M, Frost D, Orrell MW. The development of a valid and reliable scale for rating anxiety in dementia (RAID). Aging Ment Health. 1999;3:39–49. CrossRef
Cummings JL. The neuropsychiatric inventory: assessing psychopathology in dementia patients. Neurology. 1997;48(Suppl):10–6. CrossRef
Clarke C, Wolverson E, Stoner C, Spector A. Overview and ways forward for a positive psychology approach to dementia. In: Wolverson E, Clarke C, editors. Positive psychology approaches to dementia. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 2016. p. 253–79.
Seligman ME. The President's address. American psychological association. Washington: American Psychological Association; 1998.
Padgett DK. Qualitative methods in social work research: challenges and rewards. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 1998.
Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol. 2006;3:93. CrossRef
Saldana J. The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications; 2009.
Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika. 1951;16:297–334. CrossRef
Sheikh JI, Yesavage JA. Geriatric depression scale (GDS): recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clin Gerontol. 1986;5:165–73. CrossRef
Dalby P, Sperlinger D, Boddingston S. The lived experience of spirituality and dementia in older people living with mild to moderate dementia. Dementia. 2011;11:75–94. CrossRef
Wolverson EL, Clarke C, Moniz-Cook E. Remaining hopeful in early-stage dementia: a qualitative study. Aging Ment Health. 2010;14:450–60. CrossRef
Wolverson EL, Clarke C, Moniz-Cook ED. Living positively with dementia: a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature. Aging Ment Health. 2015;20:1–24.
Spillman BC, Long SK. Does high caregiver stress predict nursing home entry? Inquiry. 2009;46:140–61. PubMed
Holst G, Edberg A. Wellbeing among people with dementia and their next of kin over a period of three years. Scan J Caring Sci. 2011;25:549–57. CrossRef
Livingston G, Leavey G, Manela M, Livingston D, Rait G, Sampson E, et al. Making decisions for people with dementia who lack capacity: qualitative study of family carers in UK. BMJ. 2010;341:1–9. CrossRef
Norton MC, Piercy KW, Rabins PV, Green RC, Breitner JC, Østbye T, et al. Caregiver-recipient closeness and symptom progession in Alzheimer disease. The cache county dementia progession study. J Gerontol B Psychol Scie Soc Sci. 2009;64B:560–8. CrossRef
Tugade MM, Fredrickson BL, Feldman BL. Psychological resilience and positive emotional granularity: examining the benefits of positive emotions on coping and health. J Personal. 2004;72:1161–90. CrossRef
Bradshaw SD. The development of the hope and coping in recovery measure (HCRM). J Groups Addict Recover. 2014;9:280–93. CrossRef
Hogervorst E, Clifford A, Stock J, Xin X, Bandelow S. Exercise to prevent cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease: for whom, when, what and (most importantly) how much? J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism. 2012;2:1–3. CrossRef
Park NS. The relationship of social engagement to psychological well-being of older adults in assisted living facilities. J Appl Gerontol. 2009;28:461481. CrossRef
Wolverson E, Clarke C. Hope and dementia. In: Wolverson E, Clarke C, editors. Positive psychology approaches to dementia. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 2016. p. 88–109.
Edward K. Resilience: a protector from depression. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc. 2016;22:43–51. CrossRef
Cheavens J. Hope and depression: light through the shadows. In: Snyder CR, editor. Handbook of hope. London: Academic; 2000. p. 321–40. CrossRef
Daaleman TP, Frey BB, Wallace D, Studenski SA. The spirituality index of well-being: development and testing of a new measure. J Fam Pract. 2002;51:952. PubMed
Tremont G. Family caregiving in dementia. Med Health. 2011;94:36–8.
Carbonneau H, Caron C, Desrosiers J. Development of a conceptual framework of positive aspects of caregiving in dementia. Dementia. 2010;9:327–53. CrossRef
Moyle W, Gracia N, Murlfield JE, Griffiths SG, Venturato L. Assessing quality of life in older people with dementia in long-term care: a comparison of two self-report measures. J Clin Nurs Title. 2011;21:1632–40. CrossRef
- The development and preliminary psychometric properties of two positive psychology outcome measures for people with dementia: the PPOM and the EID-Q
Charlotte R. Stoner
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
Mail Icon II