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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2012

The development of insecticide-treated durable wall lining for malaria control: insights from rural and urban populations in Angola and Nigeria

Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2012
Louisa A Messenger, Nathan P Miller, Adedapo O Adeogun, Taiwo Samson Awolola, Mark Rowland
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1475-2875-11-332) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors received financial support from The Mentor Initiative and Durable Activated Residual Textiles S.A. (DART S.A.) to conduct the study but have no competing or commercial interests with either company. Neither of these commercial parties played any role in data analysis, interpretation of results, decision to publish or preparation of the final manuscript.

Authors’ contributions

The field trials were initiated by DART S.A. and The Mentor Initiative and conducted in collaboration with NPM, AOA and TSA. Data was consolidated, interpreted and analysed retrospectively and independently by LAM and MR. LAM and MR wrote the manuscript. NPM, AOA and TSA revised the final manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



Durable lining (DL) is a deltamethrin-impregnated polyethylene material, which is designed to cover domestic walls that would normally be sprayed with residual insecticide. The operational success of DL as a long-lasting insecticidal substrate will be dependent on a high level of user acceptability as households must maintain correctly installed linings on their walls for several years. Preliminary trials were undertaken to identify a material to develop into a marketable wall lining and to assess its level of acceptability among rural and urban populations.


In Angola (n=60), prototype DL and insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) were installed on urban house walls and ceilings, respectively, and acceptability was compared to indoor residual spraying (IRS) (n=20) using a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire. In Nigeria (n=178), three materials (prototype DL, ITPS and insecticide-treated wall netting) were distributed among rural and urban households. User opinions were gathered from focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and KAP questionnaires.


In Angola, after two weeks, the majority of participants (98%) expressed satisfaction with the products and identified the killing of insects as the materials’ principal benefits (73%). After one year, despite a loss of almost 50% of households to refugee repatriation, all 32 remaining households still asserted that they had liked the DL/ITPS in their homes and given the choice of intervention preferred DL/ITPS to IRS (94%) or insecticide-treated nets (78%). In Nigeria, a dichotomy between rural and urban respondents emerged. Rural participants favoured wall adornments and accepted wall linings because of their perceived decorative value and entomological efficacy. By contrast, urban households preferred minimal wall decoration and rejected the materials based upon objections to their aesthetics and installation feasibility.


The high level of acceptability among rural inhabitants in Nigeria identifies these communities as the ideal target consumer group for durable wall linings. The poorer compliance among urban participants suggests that wall linings would not be readily adopted or sustained in these regions. If DL is as well received by other rural populations it could overcome some of the logistical constraints associated with spray campaigns and has the potential to become a long-lasting alternative to IRS in malaria endemic areas.
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