The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-332) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors received financial support from The Mentor Initiative and Durable Activated Residual Textiles S.A. (DART S.A.) to conduct the study but have no competing or commercial interests with either company. Neither of these commercial parties played any role in data analysis, interpretation of results, decision to publish or preparation of the final manuscript.
The field trials were initiated by DART S.A. and The Mentor Initiative and conducted in collaboration with NPM, AOA and TSA. Data was consolidated, interpreted and analysed retrospectively and independently by LAM and MR. LAM and MR wrote the manuscript. NPM, AOA and TSA revised the final manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Durable lining (DL) is a deltamethrin-impregnated polyethylene material, which is designed to cover domestic walls that would normally be sprayed with residual insecticide. The operational success of DL as a long-lasting insecticidal substrate will be dependent on a high level of user acceptability as households must maintain correctly installed linings on their walls for several years. Preliminary trials were undertaken to identify a material to develop into a marketable wall lining and to assess its level of acceptability among rural and urban populations.
In Angola (n=60), prototype DL and insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) were installed on urban house walls and ceilings, respectively, and acceptability was compared to indoor residual spraying (IRS) (n=20) using a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire. In Nigeria (n=178), three materials (prototype DL, ITPS and insecticide-treated wall netting) were distributed among rural and urban households. User opinions were gathered from focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and KAP questionnaires.
In Angola, after two weeks, the majority of participants (98%) expressed satisfaction with the products and identified the killing of insects as the materials’ principal benefits (73%). After one year, despite a loss of almost 50% of households to refugee repatriation, all 32 remaining households still asserted that they had liked the DL/ITPS in their homes and given the choice of intervention preferred DL/ITPS to IRS (94%) or insecticide-treated nets (78%). In Nigeria, a dichotomy between rural and urban respondents emerged. Rural participants favoured wall adornments and accepted wall linings because of their perceived decorative value and entomological efficacy. By contrast, urban households preferred minimal wall decoration and rejected the materials based upon objections to their aesthetics and installation feasibility.
The high level of acceptability among rural inhabitants in Nigeria identifies these communities as the ideal target consumer group for durable wall linings. The poorer compliance among urban participants suggests that wall linings would not be readily adopted or sustained in these regions. If DL is as well received by other rural populations it could overcome some of the logistical constraints associated with spray campaigns and has the potential to become a long-lasting alternative to IRS in malaria endemic areas.
World Health Organization: World malaria report. 2010, Geneva: World Health Organization
Najera J, Zaim M: Malaria vector control: insecticides for indoor residual spraying. World Health Organ. 2001, Geneva: WHO/CDS/WHOPES/2001, 3-
Yukich JO, Lengeler C, Tediosi F, Brown N, Mulligan JA, Chavasse D, Stevens W, Justino J, Conteh L, Maharaj R, Erskine M, Mueller DH, Wiseman V, Ghebremeskel T, Zerom M, Goodman C, McGuire D, Urrutia JM, Sakho F, Hanson K, Sharp B: Costs and consequences of large-scale vector control for malaria. Malar J. 2008, 7: 258-10.1186/1475-2875-7-258. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
Rowland M, Durrani N, Hewitt S, Mohammed N, Bouma M, Carneiro I, Rozendaal J, Schapira A: Permethrin-treated chaddars and top-sheets: appropriate technology for protection against malaria in Afghanistan and other complex emergencies. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999, 93: 465-472. 10.1016/S0035-9203(99)90341-3. CrossRefPubMed
Graham K, Mohammad N, Rehman H, Nazari A, Ahmad M, Kamal M, Skovmand O, Guillet P, Allan R, Zaim M, Yates A, Lines J, Rowland M: Insecticide-treated plastic tarpaulins for control of malaria vectors in refugee camps. Med Vet Entomol. 2002, 16: 404-408. 10.1046/j.1365-2915.2002.00395.x. CrossRefPubMed
Mittal PK, Sreehari U, Razdan RK, Dash AP: Evaluation of the impact of ZeroFly®, an insecticide incorporated plastic sheeting on malaria incidence in two temporary labour shelters in India. J Vector Borne Dis. 2011, 48: 138-143. PubMed
Messenger LA, Arnez AM, Manana AN, Stiles-Ocran JB, Knowles S, Boakye DA, Coulibaly MB, Larsen ML, Traoré AS, Diallo B, Konaté M, Guindo A, Traoré SF, Mulder CEG, Stander GN, Olivier PM, Hoan L, Kleinschmidt I, Rowland M: Multicentre studies of insecticide-treated durable wall lining in Africa and South-East Asia: entomological efficacy and household acceptability during one year of field use. Malar J. submitted
World Health Organization: World malaria report 2005. 2005, Geneva: World Health Organization CrossRef
World Health Organization: Communicable disease toolkit for Angola. 2005, Geneva: World Health Organization
Cuamba N, Choi KS, Townson H: Malaria vectors in Angola: distribution of species and molecular forms of the anopheles gambiae complex, their pyrethroid insecticide knockdown resistance ( kdr) status and plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates. Malar J. 2006, 5: 2-10.1186/1475-2875-5-2. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
Boccolini D, Carrara GC, Dia I, Fortes F, Cani PJ, Constantini C: Chromosomal differentiation of anopheles funestus from Luanda and Huambo provinces, Western and Central Angola. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005, 73: 1071-1076. PubMed
World Health Organization: World malaria report 2008. 2008, Geneva: World Health Organization CrossRef
Uzochukwu BSC, Onwejekwe OE: Socioeconomic differences and health seeking behavior for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria: a case study of four local government areas operating the bamako initiative programme in South-East Nigeria. Int J Equity Health. 2004, 3: 6-10.1186/1475-9276-3-6. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
Lagos overview. http://www.lagosstate.gov.ng/index.php?page=subpage&spid=12&mnu=null [accessed on August 27, 2011]
Market Research Society: Occupation groupings: a job dictionary. 2006, London: The Society
Glaser B, Strauss A: The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. 1967, Chicago: Aldine Publishing
Djenontin A, Chabi J, Baldet T, Irish S, Pennetier C, Hougard JM, Corbel V, Akogbéto M, Chande F: Managing insecticide resistance in malaria vectors by combining carbamate-treated plastic wall sheeting and pyrethroid-treated bed nets. Malaria J. 2009, 8: 233-10.1186/1475-2875-8-233. CrossRef
Chandre F, Dabire RK, Hougard JM, Djogbenou LS, Irish SR, Rowland M, N’Guessan R: Field efficacy of pyrethroid treated plastic sheeting (durable lining) in combination with long lasting insecticidal nets gainst malaria vectors. Parasit Vectors. 2010, 3: 65-10.1186/1756-3305-3-65. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
United States Department of State: 2009 Country reports on human rights practices. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/index.htm [accessed on March 18, 2012]
Leatherman S, Metcalfe M, Geissler K, Dunford D: Integrating microfinance and health strategies: examining the evidence to inform policy and practice. Health Policy Plan. 2012, 25: 85-101. CrossRef
- The development of insecticide-treated durable wall lining for malaria control: insights from rural and urban populations in Angola and Nigeria
Louisa A Messenger
Nathan P Miller
Adedapo O Adeogun
Taiwo Samson Awolola
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
e.Med Kampagnen-Visual, Mail Icon II