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Erschienen in: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 1/2019

17.10.2018 | Short Communication

The disease of Sigmund Freud: oral cancer or cocaine-induced lesion?

verfasst von: Matteo Trimarchi, Giacomo Bertazzoni, Mario Bussi

Erschienen in: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology | Ausgabe 1/2019

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Abstract

Purpose

Sigmund Freud, the father of modern psychoanalysis, suffered from what was considered to be a malignant tumour spreading from the back of his palate. He underwent numerous surgical interventions and radiation therapy over the course of 16 years. Such a long survival casts a shadow of doubt on the diagnosis of oral cancer that was given to Freud.

Methods

The book “Freud: Living and Dying”, in which the personal physician of Freud described in detail his patient’s fight with oral cancer, was reviewed. Current and past evidence, as well as epidemiological data, on oral cancer and cocaine-induced midline destructive lesions were also reviewed.

Results

Tobacco and cocaine are both responsible for oral lesions and Freud was a dedicated cigar smoker as well as a user and defender of cocaine. Freud’s medical records indicate that the main cause of Freud’s oral disease was excessive smoking. On the other hand, the diagnosis of oral cancer does not seem to be entirely consistent with the 16-year-long survival of Freud. Freud used cocaine regularly in the 1890s, as reported by his personal physician, and it is possible that he continued taking it beyond that time period without feeling the need to inform his doctor.

Conclusions

It is possible that the lesion that progressively and very slowly eroded the splanchnocranial structures of Freud was not a bona-fide cancerous malignancy, but rather, the necrotizing effect of cocaine use that has been previously reported to be responsible for some massive facial destructive lesions.
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Metadaten
Titel
The disease of Sigmund Freud: oral cancer or cocaine-induced lesion?
verfasst von
Matteo Trimarchi
Giacomo Bertazzoni
Mario Bussi
Publikationsdatum
17.10.2018
Verlag
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Erschienen in
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology / Ausgabe 1/2019
Print ISSN: 0937-4477
Elektronische ISSN: 1434-4726
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-018-5173-3

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