Multiple sclerosis (MS) imposes high economic costs on society, but the patients and their families have to bear some of these costs.
We aimed to estimate the magnitude of these economic costs in Norway.
We collected data through a postal questionnaire survey targeting 922 MS patients in Hordaland County, western Norway, in 2013–2014; 546 agreed to participate and were included. The questionnaire included clinical and demographic characteristics, volume and cost of MS-related resource use, work participation, income, government financial support, and disability status.
The mean annual total economic costs for the patients and their families were €11,603. Indirect costs accounted for 66% and were lower for women than for men. The direct costs were nearly identical for men and women. The costs increased up to Expanded Disability Status Scale score 6 except for steps between 3 and 4 where it remained nearly constant. The costs reduced from EDSS 6 to 8, and increased from 8 to 9. Lifetime costs ranged from €24,897 to €70,021 for patients with late disease onset and slow progression, and between €441,934 and €574,860 for patients with early onset and rapid progression.
The economic costs of MS impose a heavy burden on the patients and their families. Supplementing the information on the cost of MS to society, our finding should be included as background information in decisions on reimbursing and allocating public resources for the well-being of MS patients and their families.
Adelman, G., Rane, S.G., Villa, K.F.: The cost burden of multiple sclerosis in the United States: a systematic review of the literature. Med. Econ. 16, 639–647 (2013) CrossRef
Inman, R.P.: Disability indices, the economic cost of illness, and social insurance: the case of multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol. Scand. Suppl. 101, 46–55 (1984) PubMed
Holmes, J., Madgwick, T., Bates, D.: The cost of multiple sclerosis. Br. J. Med. Econ. 8, 181–193 (1995)
Canadian Burden of Illness Study Group: Burden of illness of multiple sclerosis. I. Cost of illness. Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 25, 23–30 (1998) CrossRef
Whetten-Golldstein, K., Sloan, F.A., Goldstein, L.B., Kulas, E.D.: A comprehensive assessment of the cost of multiple sclerosis in the United States. Mult. Scler. 4, 419–425 (1998) CrossRef
da Silva, N.L., Takemoto, M.L., Damasceno, A., Fragoso, Y.D., Finkelsztejn, A., Becker, J., Gonçalves, M.V., Tilbery, C., de Oliveira, E.M., Callegaro, D., Boulos, F.C.: Cost analysis of multiple sclerosis in Brazil: a cross-sectional multicenter study. BMC Health Serv. Res. 16, 102 (2016) CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Wiberg, M., Friberg, E., Stenbeck, M., Alexanderson, K., Norlund, A., Hillert, J., Tinghøg, P.: Sources and level of income among individuals with multiple sclerosis compared to the general population: a nationwide population-based study. Mult. Scler. 21, 1–12 (2015) CrossRef
Catanzaro, M., Weinert, C.: Economic status of families living with multiple sclerosis. Int. J. Rehab. Res. 15, 209–218 (1992) CrossRef
Hakim, E.A., Bakheit, A.M.O., Bryant, T.N., Roberts, M.W.H., McIntosh-Michaelis, S.A., Spackman, A.J., Martin, J.P., McLellan, D.L.: The social impact of multiple sclerosis—a study of 305 patients and their relatives. Disabil. Rehabil. 22, 280–293 (2000) CrossRef
McCabe, M.P., De Judicibus, M.: The effect of economic disadvantage on psychological well-being and quality of life among people with multiple sclerosis. J. Health Psychol. 10, 163–173 (2005) CrossRef
De Juducibus, M.A., McCabe, M.P.: The impact of financial costs of multiple sclerosis on quality of life. Int. J. Behav. Med. 14, 3–11 (2007) CrossRef
McCabe, M.P., O’Connor, E.J.: A longitudinal study of economic pressure among people living with a progressive neurological illness. Chronic Ill. 5, 177–183 (2009) CrossRef
Roxburgh, R.H., Seaman, S.R., Masterman, T., Hensiek, A.E., Sawcer, S.J., Vukusic, S., Achiti, I., Confavreux, C., Coustans, M., le Page, E., Edan, G., McDonnell, G.V., Hawkins, S., Trojano, M., Liguori, M., Cocco, E., Marrosu, M.G., Tesser, F., Leone, M.A., Weber, A., Zipp, F., Miterski, B., Epplen, J.T., Oturai, A., Sørensen, P.S., Celius, E.G., Lara, N.T., Montalban, X., Villoslada, P., Silva, A.M., Marta, M., Leite, I., Dubois, B., Rubio, J., Butzkueven, H., Kilpatrick, T., Mycko, M.P., Selmaj, K.W., Rio, M.E., Sá, M., Salemi, G., Savettieri, G., Hillert, J., Compston, D.A.: Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score: using disability and disease duration to rate disease severity. Neurology 64, 1144–1151 (2005) CrossRefPubMed
Polman, C.H., Reingold, S.C., Banwell, B., Clanet, M., Cohen, J.A., Filippi, M., Fujihara, K., Havrdova, E., Hutchinson, M., Kappos, L., Lublin, F.D., Montalban, X., O’Connorm, P., Sandberg-Wollheim, M., Thompson, A.J., Waubant, E., Weinshenker, B., Wolinsky, J.S.: Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revision to the McDonald criteria. Ann. Neurol. 69, 292–302 (2011) CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Kobelt, G., Lindgren, P., Smala, A., Jönsson, B.: Group GCoMS: costs and quality of life in multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional observational study in Germany. Eur. J. Health Econ. 2, 60–68 (2001) CrossRef
Gray, O.M., Jolley, D., Zwannikken, C., Troyano, M., Grand´Maison, F., Duquette, P., Grammond, P., Bergamaschi, R., Giuliani, R., Taffi, R., Hupperts, R.M.M., Petersen, T., Boz, C., Rio, M.E., Van Pesch, V., Roulette, E., Lechner-Scott, J., Izquierdo. G., Cristiano, E., Pöhlau, D., Fiol, M., Oleschko Arruda, W., Deri, N., Flechter, S., Paine, M., Savino, A., Cabrera-Gomez, J.A., Hoffmann, M.W., Butzkueven, W.: The Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) re-examined: EDSS rank stability in the MSBase dataset increases 5 years after onset of multiple sclerosis. Neurol. Asia 13, 217–219 (2008)
NICE Decision Support Unit: Update to the NICE Technology Appraisals Methods Guide (2013)
Drummond, M.F., Sculper, M.J., Torrance, G.W., O’Brien, B.J., Stoddard, G.L.: Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programs, 3rd edn, pp. 72–78 . Oxford University Press (2007)
Kobelt, G., Berg, J., Lindgren, P., Jönsson, B.: Costs and quality of life in multiple sclerosis in Europe; method of assessment and analysis. Eur. J. Health Econ. 7, 5–13 (2006) CrossRef
Grytten, N., Glad, S,B,, Aarseth, J.H., Nyland, H., Midgaard, R., Myhr, K-M.: A 50-year follow-up of the incidence of multiple sclerosis in Hordaland County, Norway. Neurology 66, 182–186 (2006)
- The economic impact of multiple sclerosis to the patients and their families in Norway
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
- The European Journal of Health Economics
Print ISSN: 1618-7598
Elektronische ISSN: 1618-7601