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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Oral Health 1/2015

The effect of micro-electric current and other activation techniques on dissolution abilities of sodium hypochlorite in bovine tissues

BMC Oral Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
İhsan Furkan Ertuğrul, Murat Maden, Ekim Onur Orhan, Sabriye Perçin Özkorucuklu
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The author declares that there are no conflicts of interest.

Authors’ contributions

IFE: Idea, performed experiments, performed the statistical analysis. MM: Supervisor of the study, experimental designer of tissue dissolution tests, proofread manuscript. EOO: Co-supervisor of the writing the manuscript. Sabriye SPO: Co-supervisor of Electrolysis experiments. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Authors’ information

1. İhsan Furkan Ertuğrul, DDs, PhD Department of Endodontics, Ağız Diş Sağlığı Merkezi, Aydın Turkey. Mail:
2. Murat Maden, DDS, PhD, Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Süleyman Demirel University Isparta Turkey. Mail:
3. Ekim Onur Orhan, DDS, PhD, Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Osmangazi University, Eskişehir, Turkey. Mail:
4. Sabriye Perçin Özkorucuklu, PhD, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Süleyman Demirel University Isparta Turkey. Mail:



The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of micro-electric current on sodium hypochlorite’s (NaOCl’s) tissue-dissolution abilities, compared with other activation methods, including sonic, ultrasonic, pipetting, and temperature.


Bovine muscle tissues (n = 154) with standard sizes and weights were prepared and divided into two temperature groups: room temperature and 45 °C. Each temperature group was divided into seven sub-groups by activation methods: D = distilled water (−control); NaOCl = 5.25 % passive NaOCl (+ control); P = 5.25 % NaOCl with pipetting; SA = 5.25 % NaOCl with sonic activation; UA = 5.25 % NaOCl with ultrasonic activation; E-NaOCl = 5.25 % NaOCl with micro-electric current; and E-NaOCl + P = 5.25 % NaOCl with micro-electric current and pipetting. Specimens were weighed before and after treatment. Average, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, and median were calculated for each group. Resulting data were analyzed statistically using multi-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. The level of the alpha-type error was set at < 0.05.


At room temperature, the E-NaOCl + P group dissolved the highest amount of tissue (p < 0.05), and the UA, SA, and P groups dissolved significantly higher amounts of tissue than did the positive control or E-NaOCl groups (p < 0.05). At 45 °C, there was no significant difference between the SA and E-NaOCl groups (p > 0.05), and the E-NaOCl + P group dissolved a higher amount of tissue than any other group (p < 0.05).


Using NaOCl with micro-electric current can improve the tissue-dissolving ability of the solution. In addition, this method can be combined with additional techniques, such as heating and/or pipetting, to achieve a synergistic effect of NaOCl on tissue dissolution.
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