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09.04.2019 | Original Research | Ausgabe 2/2020 Open Access

Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 2/2020

The effects of a recruitment manoeuvre with positive end-expiratory pressure on lung compliance in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing > Ausgabe 2/2020
Osamu Kudoh, Daizoh Satoh, Naosuke Hori, Izumi Kawagoe, Eiichi Inada
Wichtige Hinweise

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1 Introduction

Using lung protective ventilation (LPV) strategies in patients at risk of postoperative pulmonary complications undergoing major abdominal procedures has become an area of interest in recent years. However, controversy persists around which features of LPV are beneficial in this group, as the largest study utilised low tidal volumes [ 1], a recruitment manoeuvre (RM), and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Although there has been much recent research in this area, key uncertainties in perioperative ventilation remain.
Since the introduction of computer-enhanced robotic surgi-cal systems in 2001, robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) has been commonly used in the surgical treatment of prostate cancer. RARP presents several advantages over conventional surgery, including nerve sparing, shorter hospitalization times, reduced blood loss, and less postoperative pain [ 2, 3]. However, to maximize the surgical visual field, RARP usually requires the patient to be placed in a steep Trendelenburg lithotomy position with a pneumoperitoneum.
Both the increase in abdominal pressure because of a pneumoperitoneum with CO 2 insufflation and the steep Trendelenburg lithotomy position during RARP have been shown to impair respiratory function, mainly inducing atelectasis formation in the dependent lung regions [ 4].
Recent clinical data have demonstrated that a mechanical ventilatory strategy using lower tidal volumes and PEEP decreases the risk of pulmonary complications by minimising alveolar stretching at the end of inspiration and thus avoiding possible inflammation or alveolar collapse [ 5]. Using PEEP after recruitment can reportedly prevent re-collapse of the alveoli [ 68]. The distinct differences seen in compliance at identical pressure levels before and after recruitment support the idea of a gain in the number of open alveoli by the RM itself [ 9]. Recent clinical studies have also reported that mechanical ventilation using PEEP with or without an RM could help improve intraoperative arterial partial pressure of oxygen ( PaO 2) and lung compliance (C LUNG) and reduce pulmonary shunt fraction [ 10, 11]. However, the effects of an RM with PEEP on C LUNG are not well characterised in patients undergoing RARP. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of an RM with PEEP on C LUNG in patients undergoing RARP have not been thoroughly investigated.
Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an RM on respiratory and ventilatory parameters and arterial blood gas analysis in patients undergoing RARP.

2 Methods

This single-centre, prospective, randomized, comparative clinical and observational study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Juntendo University Hospital. Written informed consent was obtained from all 19 adult male patients enrolled in the study. This registered clinical trial (UMIN000013888) included consecutive patients undergoing RARP from November 2013 to May 2014. We enrolled non-smoking patients aged 20–70 years with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification score of 1–2 who were scheduled for RARP using a computer-enhanced robotic operating system (da Vinci™ Surgical System, Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Patients with a known history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal or heart failure, or obesity [defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg m −2] were excluded from the study. No premedication was given. Upon arriving in the operating theatre, patients were monitored by electrocardiography, pulse oximetry, capnography, non-invasive automated arterial pressure measurement, and temperature measurement using a patient monitor (BSM-5135; Nihon Kohden Corp., Tokyo, Japan). Patients were breathing a fraction of inspired oxygen (F IO 2) of 1.0 during the induction of general anaesthesia using remifentanil at a rate of 0.4–0.8 μg kg −1 min −1 and propofol via target-controlled infusion to a plasma concentration of 4 μg mL −1. The lungs were ventilated manually via a face mask with an F IO 2 of 1.0. Muscle paralysis was achieved with rocuronium 0.6 mg kg −1 to facilitate the orotracheal intubation. Patients were intubated via a cuffed tracheal tube reinforced with a stylet with an internal diameter of 8.0 mm (Mallinckrodt™ endotracheal tube; Covidien plc., Dublin, Ireland). The lungs were ventilated mechanically through a ventilator (AVEA™ Ventilator Systems; CareFusion Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) with volume-controlled ventilation with an inspiratory pause of 10%, an inspiratory to expiratory ratio of 1:2, and a tidal volume (V T) of 7 mL kg −1 of the predicted body weight. The predicted body weight was calculated as 49.9 + 0.91 × [height (cm) − 152.4]. The respiratory rate (RR) was 12 bpm and varied to maintain eucapnia (end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure [EtCO 2] of 40–50 mmHg). Patients were ventilated using oxygen and air with an F IO 2 of 0.5 as needed to maintain an oxygen saturation (SaO 2) ≥ 95%. PEEP was not initially added. An arterial cannula was inserted percutaneously into the radial artery of the non-dominant hand after the induction of anaesthesia, in line with the standard practice of our institution for continuous arterial pressure monitoring and blood gas sampling. An arterial blood gas analysis was performed within 1 min of sampling using a blood gas analyser (RAPIDLab ® 1200 Systems; Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen, Germany). Patients were placed in the horizontal lithotomy position. Anaesthesia was maintained with a continuous infusion of propofol, remifentanil, and rocuronium throughout the surgery. Adequate anaesthetic depth was maintained by bispectral index monitoring (Aspect A-2000™; Aspect Medical System, Inc., Newton, MA, USA). The infusion rate of propofol was varied to maintain the bispectral index in the range of 40–60. Maintenance of haemodynamic stability (arterial systolic pressure and heart rate 80–100% of the pre-anaesthetic value) included administration of remifentanil at a rate of 0.1–0.2 μg kg −1 min −1. The neuromuscular block was maintained with the administration of rocuronium at a rate of 0.4 mg kg −1 h −1. Standardised fluid management was performed in patients using a crystalloid solution (acetated Ringer’s solution; Terumo ®, Tokyo, Japan) at a rate of 20 mL kg −1 h −1 immediately before the anaesthetic induction and until the patient was placed in a steep Trendelenburg lithotomy position, followed by 5 kg −1 h −1 until the end of the surgery. The occurrence of intraoperative hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 65 mmHg or a decrease in mean arterial pressure > 20% of baseline for more than 5 min) was managed with a bolus of a 10 mL kg −1 crystalloid solution with an incremental administration of intravenous vasoactive drugs (ephedrine 4 mg or phenylephrine 0.05 mg), as appropriate. To maintain normothermia, a heating blanket (Bair Hugger™; Augustine Medical Inc., Eden Prairie, MN, USA) and a blood and fluid warming system (Ranger™, Augustine Medical Inc.) were used, whereas no warmed infusions were used. Operating room temperatures were kept at approximately 23 °C (73.4 °F). During RARP, patients were in a steep Trendelenburg lithotomy position, a pneumoperitoneum was established with CO 2 insufflation, and the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was maintained automatically at 10 mmHg. At the end of the surgery, the infusions of propofol and remifentanil were discontinued and the residual neuromuscular paralysis was reversed with sugammadex 0.2-0.4 mg kg −1.

2.1 Study protocol

To analyse the effects of an RM, patients were allocated to one of two groups; 10 with an RM (R group) and 9 without an RM (C group). The RM used in this study involved a sustained inflation of 30 cmH 2O applied for 30 s. Patient allocation was performed by a researcher who was not involved in anaesthesia care or the outcome analysis. Random assignments were made using sealed envelopes. The attending anaesthesiologists and outcome assessors were aware of the allocated RM, but the patients, urologists, and data analysts were blinded to the interventional details.
About 30 min after pneumoperitoneum induction, if the patients were haemodynamically stable (i.e., mean arterial pressure ≥ 65 mmHg and heart rate ≥ 50 beats min −1), the protocol was started as follows.
Data were collected at the following time points:
30 min after anaesthesia induction in the horizontal lithotomy position before pneumoperitoneum induction (pre-op);
30 min after pneumoperitoneum induction (abdominal CO 2 insufflation to obtain and IAP of 10 mmHg) (pneumo);
30 min after the establishment of a steep Trendelenburg lithotomy position (the patient positioned at 26° head down) (RARP0), the following occurs:
  • R group participants then received a single RM that involved sustained inflation of 30 cmH 2O applied for 30 s. After the RM, the ventilator was immediately switched back to volume-controlled mode and was carefully added a PEEP level of 5 cmH 2O.
  • C group participants did not receive the RM, and the ventilator was carefully added a PEEP level of 5 cmH 2O.
1 h after achieving a PEEP level of 5 cmH 2O (RARP5.1);
2 h after achieving a PEEP level of 5 cmH 2O (RARP5.2); and
At the end of surgery, after abdominal deflation and in the horizontal lithotomy position with a PEEP level of 5 cmH 2O (post-op).
The data collected or calculated continuously throughout this study included the following:
  • Respiratory and ventilatory parameters: exhaled V T (Vte), plateau pressure (P PLAT), PEEP, static compliance (C STAT), chest wall compliance (C CW), C LUNG, RR, and EtCO 2.
  • Arterial blood gas analysis: PaO 2, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide ( PaCO 2), pH, and SaO 2.
  • Haemodynamics: mean arterial pressure and heart rate.
  • Complications of pneumoperitoneum, positioning, or anaesthesia during surgery.

2.2 Monitoring

Here, we continuously monitored and recorded oesophageal pressure (P OES). During mechanical ventilation, the distending force of the lung is the transpulmonary pressure [ 12], that is, the difference between airway pressure (P AW) and the pressure required to expand the chest wall [ 13, 14] that is clinically estimated by measuring P OES as a surrogate of pleural pressure [ 15]. P OES was used for C CW and C LUNG using a ventilator (comprehensive model of AVEA™ Ventilator Systems; CareFusion, Inc.). The patients were kept in the horizontal lithotomy position. Air flow was measured with pneumotachography. For measuring P OES, an oesophageal balloon-tipped catheter (SmartCath™, Vyaire Medical Inc., Mettawa, IL, USA) was inserted transnasally and advanced into the oesophagus. To airway pressure (P AW) measurement accuracy, a tracheal catheter (P/N 110635™; Cardinal Health, Inc., Dublin, OH, USA) was placed in an endotracheal tube using a sealed sideport connector and not extended beyond the tip of the tube. A pressure sensor of the oesophageal and the tracheal catheter was attached to the ventilator at the connection on the front panel identified with the legend P OES and Aux, respectively. All data were recorded and analysed using an optimal waveform in computer software. The waveform produced during insertion provided information to confirm proper placement. After the oesophageal balloon was filled with 0.5–1 mL of air and the pressure was monitored and measured, P OES was waveform should be compared with P AW waveform. P OES waveform correlates to P AW in that they become positive during a positive pressure breath and negative during a spontaneous breath. The oesophageal tracing showed small cardiac oscillations reflective of cardiac activity, indicating that the balloon was positioned in the lower third of the oesophagus directly behind the heart. Once placed using the above criteria, the appropriate balloon location confirmed using an occlusion technique. This required that the airway was occluded and P OES and P AW were compared for similarity. Furthermore, we confirmed correct placement of the oesophageal and tracheal catheter on postoperative chest radiography.

2.3 Data analysis

Age, ASA Physical Status Classification, height, weight, and BMI were recorded. Physiological variables involved in this study were evaluated and recorded by an investigator who was blinded to the group allocation details. The magnitudes of P AW and P OES were measured and obtained directly from the ventilator. C STAT, C CW and C LUNG were calculated using the following equations:
  • C STAT = Vt/(P PLAT − PEEP)
  • C CW = Vte/dP OES, where dP OES = P PEAK OES − PEEP OES
  • C LUNG = Vte/dP PLAT TP, where dP PLAT TP = (P PLAT AW − P OES) − (PEEP AW − PEEP OES)
dP OES, delta P OES; P PEAK OES, peak P OES; PEEP OES, baseline P OES (at the end of exhalation); dP PLAT TP, delta transpulmonary pressure; P PLAT AW, plateau P AW (during an inspiratory pause); P OES (at the time airway plateau pressure is measured); PEEP AW, baseline P AW (at the end of an expiratory hold manoeuvre)
  • 1/C STAT = 1/C CW + 1/C LUNG
Vt ≈ Vte, P PEAK OES ≈ P OES (at the time P PLAT AW is measured, during an inspiratory pause).

2.4 Statistical analysis

The statistical comparison was performed as follow. All data were tested for normal distribution by the Kolmogorov–Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit test and are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). The data analysis was performed using Welch’s t test and repeated-measures analysis of variance; if significant, Scheffe’s test was applied for a post hoc comparison between the different experimental conditions. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
We estimated that a maximal sample of 24 patients was required to detect C LUNG improvement by the RM from baseline to 145%. The α and β errors for the sample size with a 0.025 level of significance were 0.05 and 0.2, respectively.
All statistical calculations and data analysis were performed using StatView 5.0™ (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).

3 Results

Of the 24 screened patients, 19 patients were finally recruited, 2 patients who were not finally recruited (A time period from RARP0 to RALP5.2 was within 2 h) and 3 patients who refused to participate were excluded. So, this study was a relatively underpowered study. No other patients developed any complications perioperatively related to pneumoperitoneum, positioning, or anaesthesia during surgery. All surgeries were performed successfully without conversion to the open technique. The clinical characteristics of the enrolled patients are shown in Table  1; there were no significant intergroup differences. Respiratory and arterial blood gas analysis data are shown in Table  2.
Table 1
Characteristics of the enrolled patients
C group (without additional RM) n = 9
R group (with additional RM) n = 10
P value
Age (years)
62 ± 3
66 ± 8
Height (cm)
169 ± 4
169 ± 4
Weight (kg)
70 ± 8
71 ± 11
BMI (kg m −2)
25 ± 4
25 ± 8
Anaesthesia time (min)
311 ± 68
264 ± 48
Data are presented as mean ± SD
SD Standard deviation, RM recruitment manoeuvre, BMI body mass index
Table 2
Respiratory data and arterial blood gas analysis
Horizontal lithotomy
Horizontal lithotomy
Trendelenburg lithotomy
Trendelenburg lithotomy
Trendelenburg lithotomy
Horizontal lithotomy
PEEP (cmH 2O)
C STAT (mL cm −1 H 2O)
 C group
43 ± 3
25 ± 3*
23 ± 4*
26 ± 5*
27 ± 4*
45 ± 3
 R group
45 ± 6
27 ± 3*
22 ± 3*
26 ± 3*
27 ± 5*
47 ± 7
C CW (mL cm −1 H 2O)
 C group
72 ± 20
37 ± 8*
33 ± 7*
38 ± 5*
42 ± 8*
91 ± 22
 R group
76 ± 20
40 ± 7*
32 ± 6*
35 ± 13*
36 ± 14*
89 ± 37
C LUNG (mL cm −1 H 2O)
 C group
110 ± 33
76 ± 28
62 ± 13*
68 ± 11*
72 ± 9**
91 ± 34
 R group
112 ± 40
83 ± 38
79 ± 33**
103 ± 30 §
106 ± 35 §
101 ± 23
Vte (mL)
 C group
430 ± 13
432 ± 13
438 ± 15
436 ± 12
438 ± 19
433 ± 15
 R group
434 ± 38
445 ± 36
448 ± 38
439 ± 34
444 ± 39
442 ± 37
RR (cycles min −1)
 C group
12 ± 2
12 ± 2
13 ± 2
13 ± 2
13 ± 2
13 ± 2
 R group
12 ± 1
12 ± 1
13 ± 1
13 ± 2
14 ± 2
13 ± 1
PaO 2 (mmHg)
 C group
144 ± 37
153 ± 31
156 ± 37
176 ± 26*
186 ± 26*
175 ± 26*
 R group
145 ± 37
137 ± 45
145 ± 43
166 ± 47
192 ± 38* †#
181 ± 37* †#
PaCO 2 (mmHg)
 C group
38 ± 6
42 ± 7**
44 ± 7*
47 ± 6*
44 ± 6*
40 ± 6
 R group
40 ± 4
43 ± 4
45 ± 5
46 ± 7
45 ± 8
43 ± 4
P PLAT (cmH 2O)
 C group
10 ± 1
16 ± 3**
20 ± 2**
22 ± 2**
22 ± 2** ††
15 ± 2 **
 R group
9 ± 2
17 ± 2**
20 ± 4**
22 ± 3**
22 ± 4** ††
14 ± 2**
Comparison between the two groups, at different position and different ventilation settings
Data are presented as mean ± SD
Pre-op: 30 min after anaesthesia induction in the horizontal position before inducing the pneumoperitoneum; pneumo: 30 min after pneumoperitoneum induction (abdominal carbon dioxide insufflation to obtain and intra-abdominal pressure of 10 mmHg); RALP0: 30 min after establishment of the Trendelenburg position (the patient positioned at 26° head down); RALP5.1: 1 h after setting PEEP level of 5 cmH 2O; RALP5.2: 2 h after setting PEEP level of 5 cmH 2O; post-op: At the end of surgery, after abdominal deflation and in the horizontal lithotomy
RM Recruitment manoeuvre, SD standard deviation, RARP robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, C STAT static compliance, C CW chest wall compliance, C LUNG lung compliance, Vte exhaled tidal volume, RR respiratory rate, PaO 2 arterial partial pressure of oxygen, PaCO 2 arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, P PLAT plateau pressure
* P < 0.01 versus pre-ope in each group; ** P < 0.05 versus pre-ope in each group; P < 0.05 versus pneumo in each group; # P < 0.01 versus RALP0 in each group; § P < 0.05 versus the C group at the same time point
In the C group, C LUNG significantly decreased from pre-op to RARP0, RARP5.1 ( P < 0.01), and RARP5.2 ( P < 0.05) but did not significantly increase from RARP0 to RARP5.1 or RARP5.2. In the R group, C LUNG significantly decreased from pre-op to RARP0 ( P < 0.05) but did not significantly increase from RARP0 to RARP5.1 or RARP5.2. C LUNG differed significantly between the two groups, at the same time point (RARP5.1 [ P < 0.05] and RARP5.2 [ P < 0.05]). PaO 2 did not significantly change from pre-op to RARP0 but significantly increased from pre-op to RARP5.1, RARP5.2, and post-op in the C group ( P < 0.01). PaO 2 did not significantly change from pre-op to RARP0 and RARP5.1 but significantly increased from pre-op to RARP5.2 and post-op in the R group ( P < 0.01). PaO 2 significantly increased from pneumo or RARP0 to RARP5.2 and post-op in the R group ( P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant intergroup differences in PaO 2 during this procedure. PaCO 2 increased in both groups, but there were no statistically significant intergroup differences in PaCO 2 during this procedure.
Mean arterial pressure and heart rate remained stable through single RM that involved sustained inflation of 30 cmH 2O applied for 30 s at steep Trendelenburg lithotomy position. Intravenous vasoactive drugs (ephedrine 4 mg or phenylephrine 0.05 mg) had been administered only few bolus.

4 Discussion

This small randomised clinical trial evaluated the effects of an RM of 30 cmH 2O applied for 30 s on the systemic oxygenation and C LUNG of patients undergoing RARP. The main finding of our study was that an RM with PEEP during RARP was effective at improving C LUNG. After PEEP 5 cmH 2O could be not sufficient to restore the atelectasis.
A pneumoperitoneum with CO 2 insufflation and steep Trendelenburg lithotomy position are used in combination to optimise the surgical view during RARP. A pneumoperitoneum with CO 2 insufflation can affect the cardiopulmonary system in several ways. Lung volumes decrease, mean arterial pressure increases, and CO 2 absorption can be associated with acidosis. All of these changes can lead to a wide range of cardiopulmonary distresses [ 16, 17]. During RARP, use of a steep Trendelenburg position is routinely requested by the surgeons to facilitate exposure of the pelvis and the lower abdomen causes the abdominal contents to push the diaphragm cephalad along with all of the mediastinal structures [ 18]. The diaphragm cranial shift by the abdominal contents and pneumoperitoneum may lead to an increased P AW, reduce the lung’s functional residual capacity (FRC), decrease C LUNG, predispose the patient to atelectasis, and aggravate a ventilation/perfusion mismatch [ 4]. C LUNG is reduced, and this continues even after de-sufflation [ 19]. These pulmonary changes can have significant adverse consequences for patients with abnormal pulmonary mechanics. Maisch studied that the FRC revealed a plausible physiologic picture of the effects of PEEP or of PEEP in conjunction with an RM. At identical pressure levels, a larger FRC can be found after recruitment compared to the corresponding value before it. However, FRC seems unable to detect lung over-distension. Compared to the gain in PEEP before it, a gain in absolute lung volume (i.e., FRC) after recruitment cannot result from a pure distension of aerated alveoli or airways but must be the result of an increase in the number of functional alveolar units. Thus, this is proof of the intended “opening effects” of alveolar recruitment [ 9].
Several ventilation strategies aimed at improving arterial oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery have been investigated in recent years. Studies have determined that the application of PEEP counterbalances the cranial shift of the diaphragm, thus increasing FRC and respiratory system compliance and reducing respiratory system elasticity [ 20]. Recent attempts have been made to translate the concept of LPV strategies from the context of adult respiratory distress syndrome [ 21]. The apparent success of mechanical ventilation based on a strategy of using the lowest PEEP results in acceptable oxygenation [ 22, 23]. The application of an “open lung” strategy consisting of an RM [ 24] followed by the subsequent application of PEEP has been suggested to effectively re-expand pneumoperitoneum-induced atelectasis and improve oxygenation in patients undergoing prolonged laparoscopic surgery [ 25]. In addition, given that the beneficial effects of a single RM is reportedly insufficient [ 26, 27], a recent clinical study suggested that the repetitive use of RM is a way to improve arterial oxygenation since it keeps the alveoli open and improves aeration [ 28]. A single application of 40 cmH 2O for 7–8 s was reportedly sufficient to prevent postoperative atelectasis after anaesthetic induction in patients with a normal body weight [ 29], and that an RM with a PEEP of 10 cmH 2O significantly improved their intraoperative pulmonary mechanics and oxygenation [ 9]. However, data on the use of an RM in surgical patients with healthy lungs, particularly those venti-lated with a protective ventilatory strategy, remain insufficient.
In patients who undergo laparoscopic surgery in the Trendelenburg position, an open lung strategy (recruiting pressure of 40 cmH 2O and PEEP 5 cmH 2O) applied after pneumoperitoneum induction increased transpulmonary pressure and led to alveolar recruitment and improved chest wall elasticity and gas exchange [ 30]. In the R group, an open lung strategy (sustained inflation of 30 cmH 2O for 30 s with a PEEP of 5 cmH 2O; mean TV of 7 mL kg −1) applied after pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position improved C LUNG but did not change PaO 2/F IO 2 compared with patients in the C group. Compared with the practice of non-protective mechanical ventilation, the use of a lung-protective ventilation strategy (sustained inflation of 30 cmH 2O for 30 s with a PEEP of 6–8 cmH 2O; mean TV of 6.4 mL kg −1) in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery was associated with improved clinical outcomes and reduced health care utilisation (IMPROVE number NCT01282996) [ 1].
Andersson and colleagues found that the previously seen improvement in arterial oxygenation despite an increase in atelectasis volume could be due to an improved ventilation–perfusion matching during pneumoperitoneum [ 31]. This may cause ventilation/perfusion matching and maintain the PaO 2/F IO 2 ratio. The Trendelenburg position decreased FRC, whereas 5 cmH 2O PEEP slightly recovered the ventilation/perfusion mismatch in the Trendelenburg position and could result in an increasing PaO 2/F IO 2 ratio during surgery. A decremental PEEP trial identified a PEEP setting that sustained the oxygenation benefit of a 40 cmH 2O, 40 s lung-recruitment manoeuvre for 4 h [ 32]. Futier used each RM by applying a continuous positive airway pressure of 30 cmH 2O for 30 s [ 1]. With even larger inflation volumes, more than two repeated inflations to the same P AW added little to the recruitment of normal lung tissue [ 24]. Repeated RM use may be necessary to improve the sustained C LUNG [ 33].
Our investigation is under powered analysis to evaluate the effects of an RM in patients undergoing RARP and presents some limitations that require consideration. First, the latter value of PEEP could not be sufficient to restore the atelectasis in this study. Second, this study was limited by its small sample size. Therefore, although a single RM did not benefit the systemic oxygenation and C LUNG of surgical patients undergoing RARP in the steep Trendelenburg lithotomy position with a pneumoperitoneum in our trial, this result is difficult to generalise. Third, the study was not conducted in a blinded fashion. The anaesthesiologist was aware of the mode of ventilation. Fourth, enrolled patients had an ASA Physical Status Classification score of 1–2; therefore, our results apply only to healthy patients. Finally, this study did not enrol patients with respiratory diseases or obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg m −2), as these patients could be more vulnerable to the deterioration of oxygenation and respiratory mechanics during a pneumoperitoneum with CO 2 insufflation in a steep Trendelenburg lithotomy position.

5 Conclusion

In patients undergoing RARP, the addition of an RM effectively increased C LUNG from the horizontal lithotomy position to a steep Trendelenburg lithotomy position under pneumoperitoneum. We suggest that by measuring P OES to estimate P PLAT TP and C LUNG, mechanical ventilator settings could be more appropriately customised to accommodate interindividual variations in lung and chest wall mechanical characteristics.
This study showed promise for improvements in lung function, a topic that warrants further investigation. Further studies such as a large-scale multicentre studies or well-powered randomised controlled trials are required to more clearly determine the effects of a single RM and validate the use of RM with a lung protective ventilation strategy in patients undergoing RARP.


The authors thank all patients who participated in the study as well as the contributing medical, nursing, clinical, and research staff.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors declare any conflicts of interest.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​4.​0/​), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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