Given the world’s aging population, it is important to identify strategies that promote healthy cognitive aging and minimize cognitive decline. Currently, no curative pharmaceutical therapy exists for cognitive impairment and dementia. As a result, there is much interest in lifestyle approaches. Specifically, complex mental activity, such as cognitive training, may be a promising method to combat cognitive decline in older adults. As such, the industry of commercial computerized cognitive training (CCT) applications has rapidly grown in the last decade. However, the efficacy of these commercial products is largely not established. Moreover, exercise is a recognized strategy for promoting cognitive outcomes in older adults and may augment the efficacy of computerized cognitive training applications. Therefore, we propose a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial (RCT) to examine the effect of a commercial CCT program in community-dwelling older adults.
An 8-week RCT to examine the effect of a commercial CCT program, alone and preceded by a 15-min brisk walk, on cognitive function and explore the underlying neural mechanisms in adults aged 65–85 years old. Participants will be randomized to one of three intervention groups: 1) Computerized cognitive training (FBT); 2) A 15-min brisk walk followed by computerized cognitive training (Ex-FBT); or 3) A combination of educational classes, sham cognitive training, and balanced and tone exercises (active control, BAT). Participants in all intervention groups will attend three one-hour classes per week over the course of the intervention. Participants will be assessed at baseline, trial completion, and 1-year post study completion (1-year follow-up).
If results from this study show benefits for cognition at trial completion, CCT programs, alone or in combination with walking, might be a strategy to promote healthy cognitive aging in older adults. In addition, results from the 1-year follow-up measurement could provide important information regarding the long-term benefits of these CCT programs.
ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System: NCT02564809; registered September 1, 2015.
(WHO) WHO: Governments commit to advancements in dementia research and care. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2015/action-on-dementia/en/. Accessed April 1 2017.
Ngandu T, Lehtisalo J, Solomon A, Levalahti E, Ahtiluoto S, Antikainen R, Backman L, Hanninen T, Jula A, Laatikainen T, et al. A 2 year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015;385(9984):2255–63. CrossRefPubMed
Valenzuela M, Sachdev PS: harnessing brain and cognitive reserve for the prevention of dementia. Indian J Psychiatry 2009, 51 Suppl 1:S16–S21.
Klusmann V, Evers A, Schwarzer R, Schlattmann P, Reischies FM, Heuser I, Dimeo FC: Complex mental and physical activity in older women and cognitive performance: a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The journals of gerontology 2010, 65(6):680–688.
Rebok GW, Ball K, Guey LT, Jones RN, Kim HY, King JW, Marsiske M, Morris JN, Tennstedt SL, Unverzagt FW, et al. Ten-year effects of the advanced cognitive training for independent and vital elderly cognitive training trial on cognition and everyday functioning in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014;62(1):16–24. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Valenzuela MJ, Sachdev P: brain reserve and dementia: a systematic review. Psychol Med 2006, 36(4):441–454.
Lampit A, Hallock H, Valenzuela M: Computerized cognitive training in cognitively healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effect modifiers. PLoS Med 2014, 11(11):e1001756.
Lampit AH, H.; Moss, R; Kwok, S.; Rosser M.; Lukjanenko, M.; et al: The timecourse of global cognitive gains from supervised computer-assisted cognitive training: a randomised, active-controlled trial in elderly with multiple dementia risk factors. J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2014, 1(1):33–39.
Voss MW, Prakash RS, Erickson KI, Basak C, Chaddock L, Kim JS, Alves H, Heo S, Szabo AN, White SM, et al. Plasticity of brain networks in a randomized intervention trial of exercise training in older adults. Front Aging Neurosci. 2010;2
Kempermann G, Fabel K, Ehninger D, Babu H, Leal-Galicia P, Garthe A, Wolf SA: Why and how physical activity promotes experience-induced brain plasticity. Front Neurosci 2010, 4:189.
Shors TJ, Anderson ML, Curlik DM, 2nd, Nokia MS: Use it or lose it: how neurogenesis keeps the brain fit for learning. Behav Brain Res 2012, 227(2):450–458.
Duzel E, van Praag H, Sendtner M: Can physical exercise in old age improve memory and hippocampal function? Brain 2016, 139(Pt 3):662–673.
Fissler P, Kuster O, Schlee W, Kolassa IT. Novelty interventions to enhance broad cognitive abilities and prevent dementia. synergistic approaches for the facilitation of positive plastic change Prog Brain Res. 2013;207:403–34. PubMed
Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR: "mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975, 12(3):189–198.
Physiology CSfE: Par-Q and You. In . Gloucester, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology; 1994: 1–2.
Engvig A, Fjell AM, Westlye LT, Skaane NV, dale AM, Holland D, due-Tonnessen P, Sundseth O, Walhovd KB: effects of cognitive training on gray matter volumes in memory clinic patients with subjective memory impairment. J Alzheimers Dis 2014, 41(3):779–791.
Smith GE, Housen P, Yaffe K, Ruff R, Kennison RF, Mahncke HW, Zelinski EM. A cognitive training program based on principles of brain plasticity: results from the improvement in memory with plasticity-based adaptive cognitive training (IMPACT) study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(4):594–603. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Lin C, Rankin C, Nussbaum P. Mobile cognitive training regime is best tailored by age group. In: Cognitive Neuroscience Society: 2014; Boston. MI.
Borg GA. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14(5):377-381. CrossRef
Baniqued PL, Lee H, Voss MW, Basak C, Cosman JD, Desouza S, Severson J, Salthouse TA, Kramer AF. Selling points: what cognitive abilities are tapped by casual video games? Acta Psychol. 2013;142(1):74–86. CrossRef
Wilson R, Barnes L, Bennett D: Assessment of lifetime participation in cognitively stimulating activities. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2003, 25(5):634–642.
Lezak MD. Neuropsychological assessment. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 1995.
Eckerstrom C, Olsson E, Bjerke M, Malmgren H, Edman A, Wallin A, Nordlund A: A combination of neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid markers predicts conversion from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. J Alzheimers Dis 2013, 36(3):421–431.
National Institute of Health (NIH): NIH toolbox: cognition. http://www.nihtoolbox.org/WhatAndWhy/Cognition/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 1 Apr 2017.
Trenerry M, Crosson B, DeBoe J, Leber W: Stroop neuropsychological screening test. In .: psychological assessment Resources; 1988.
Spreen O, Strauss E. A compendium of neurological tests., 2nd edition edn. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.; 1998.
Enright PL, McBurnie MA, Bittner V, Tracy RP, McNamara R, Arnold a, Newman AB, cardiovascular health S: the 6-min walk test: a quick measure of functional status in elderly adults. Chest 2003, 123(2):387–398.
Fischl B, Salat DH, Busa E, Albert M, Dieterich M, Haselgrove C, van der Kouwe a, Killiany R, Kennedy D, Klaveness S et al: whole brain segmentation: automated labeling of neuroanatomical structures in the human brain. Neuron 2002, 33(3):341–355.
Fischl B, Salat DH, van der Kouwe AJ, Makris N, Segonne F, Quinn BT, dale AM: sequence-independent segmentation of magnetic resonance images. NeuroImage 2004, 23 Suppl 1:S69–S84.
Diamond K, Mowszowski L, Cockayne N, Norrie L, Paradise M, Hermens DF, Lewis SJ, Hickie IB, Naismith SL: randomized controlled trial of a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program: effects on memory, mood, and sleep. J Alzheimers Dis 2015, 44(4):1181–1191.
- The effects of an 8-week computerized cognitive training program in older adults: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Lisanne F. ten Brinke
John R. Best
Rachel A. Crockett
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
e.Med Kampagnen-Visual, Mail Icon II