The aging process is associated with a progressive decline of neuromuscular function, increased risk of falls and fractures, impaired functional performance, and loss of independence. Plyometric training may mitigate or even reverse such age-related deterioration; however, little research on the effects of plyometric exercises has been performed in older adults.
The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of plyometric training in older adults.
Papers reporting on randomized trials of plyometric training in older adults (≥ 60 years) and published up to December 2017 were sought in the PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and EMBASE databases, and their methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. A narrative synthesis of the findings is presented in this systematic review.
Of the 2236 identified papers, 18 were included in the review, reporting on 12 different studies with a mean PEDro score of 6.0 (range 4–7). Altogether, 289 subjects (176 females and 113 males) were included in 15 intervention groups with plyometric components (n = 8–36 per group); their mean age ranged from 58.4 to 79.4 years. The plyometric training lasted from 4 weeks to 12 months. Muscular strength, bone health, body composition, postural stability, and jump and physical performance were the most often reported outcomes. No study reported increased occurrence of injuries or other adverse events related to plyometric exercises.
Plyometric training is a feasible and safe training option with potential for improving various performance, functional, and health-related outcomes in older persons.
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World population prospects: the 2017 revision, key findings and advance tables. Working paper no. ESA/P/WP/248. New York: United Nations; 2017.
Steffl M, Bohannon RW, Sontakova L, Tufano JJ, Shiells K, Holmerova I. Relationship between sarcopenia and physical activity in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Interv Aging. 2017;12:835–45. CrossRef
Goodpaster BH, Park SW, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Nevitt M, Schwartz AV, et al. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61:1059–64. CrossRef
Looker AC, Johnston CC Jr, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, et al. Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. women from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;10:796–802. CrossRef
Abrahamová D, Hlavacka F. Age-related changes of human balance during quiet stance. Physiol Res. 2008;57:957–64. PubMed
Steffen TM, Hacker TA, Mollinger L. Age- and gender-related test performance in community-dwelling elderly people: six-minute walk test, Berg balance scale, timed up & go test, and gait speeds. Phys Ther. 2002;82:128–37. CrossRef
Rubenstein LZ. Falls in older people: epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age Ageing. 2006;35(Suppl 2):ii37–ii41. CrossRef
Cummings SR, Melton LJ. Epidemiology and outcomes of osteoporotic fractures. Lancet. 2002;359:1761–7. CrossRef
Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Ross R. Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50:889–96. CrossRef
Moreno-Segura N, Igual-Camacho C, Ballester-Gil Y, Blasco-Igual MC, Blasco JM. The effects of the Pilates training method on balance and falls of older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Aging Phys Act. 2018;26:327–44. CrossRef
Li F, Harmer P, Fisher KJ, McAuley E, Chaumeton N, Eckstrom E, et al. Tai Chi and fall reductions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60:187–94. CrossRef
Okubo Y, Schoene D, Lord SR. Step training improves reaction time, gait and balance and reduces falls in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51:586–93. CrossRef
Lopez P, Pinto RS, Radaelli R, Rech A, Grazioli R, Izquierdo M, et al. Benefits of resistance training in physically frail elderly: a systematic review. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2017;56:M146-11.
Guizelini PC, de Aguiar RA, Denadai BS, Caputo F, Greco CC. Effect of resistance training on muscle strength and rate of force development in healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Exp Gerontol. 2017;102:51–8. CrossRef
Lai C-C, Tu Y-K, Wang T-G, Huang Y-T, Chien K-L. Effects of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Age Ageing. 2018;47:367–73. CrossRef
Straight CR, Lindheimer JB, Brady AO, Dishman RK, Evans EM. Effects of resistance training on lower-extremity muscle power in middle-aged and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sports Med. 2016;46:353–64. CrossRef
Borde R, Hortobágyi T, Granacher U. Dose-response relationships of resistance training in healthy old adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2015;45:1693–720. CrossRef
Lacroix A, Hortobágyi T, Beurskens R, Granacher U. Effects of supervised vs. unsupervised training programs on balance and muscle strength in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2017;47:2341–61. CrossRef
Kemmler W, Shojaa M, Kohl M, von Stengel S. Exercise effects on bone mineral density in older men: a systematic review with special emphasis on study interventions. Osteoporos Int. 2018;26:2491-12.
Zhao R, Zhang M, Zhang Q. The effectiveness of combined exercise interventions for preventing postmenopausal bone loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017;47:241–51. CrossRef
Xu J, Lombardi G, Jiao W, Banfi G. Effects of exercise on bone status in female subjects, from young girls to postmenopausal women: an overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Sports Med. 2016;46:1165–82. CrossRef
El-Khoury F, Cassou B, Charles M-A, Dargent-Molina P. The effect of fall prevention exercise programmes on fall induced injuries in community dwelling older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2013;347:f6234-1348.
Bassey EJ, Rothwell MC, Littlewood JJ, Pye DW. Pre- and postmenopausal women have different bone mineral density responses to the same high-impact exercise. J Bone Miner Res. 1998;13:1805–13. CrossRef
Clissold TL, Winwood PW, Cronin JB, De Souza MJ. Do bilateral vertical jumps with reactive jump landings achieve osteogenic thresholds with and without instruction in premenopausal women? J Appl Biomech. 2018;34:118–26. CrossRef
Verniba D, Vescovi JD, Hood DA, Gage WH. The analysis of knee joint loading during drop landing from different heights and under different instruction sets in healthy males. Sports Med Open. 2017;3:6. CrossRef
Smale KB, Hansen LH, Kristensen JK, Zebis MK, Andersen C, Benoit DL, et al. Loading intensity of jumping exercises in post-menopausal women: Implications for osteogenic training. Transl Sports Med. 2018;1:30–6. CrossRef
Weeks BK, Beck BR. The BPAQ: a bone-specific physical activity assessment instrument. Osteoporos Int. 2008;19:1567–77. CrossRef
Stojanović E, Ristić V, McMaster DT, Milanović Z. Effect of plyometric training on vertical jump performance in female athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2017;47:975–86. CrossRef
Markovic G. Does plyometric training improve vertical jump height? A meta-analytical review. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41:349–55 (discussion 355).
Thomas K, French D, Hayes PR. The effect of two plyometric training techniques on muscular power and agility in youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23:332–5. CrossRef
Ramirez-Campillo R, Diaz D, Martinez-Salazar C, Valdés-Badilla P, Delgado-Floody P, Méndez-Rebolledo G, et al. Effects of different doses of high-speed resistance training on physical performance and quality of life in older women: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Interv Aging. 2016;11:1797–804. CrossRef
Ramirez-Campillo R, Álvarez C, García-Hermoso A, Celis-Morales C, Ramírez-Vélez R, Gentil P, et al. High-speed resistance training in elderly women: effects of cluster training sets on functional performance and quality of life. Exp Gerontol. 2018;110:216–22. CrossRef
Izquierdo M, Aguado X, Gonzalez R, López JL, Häkkinen K. Maximal and explosive force production capacity and balance performance in men of different ages. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1999;79:260–7. CrossRef
Pijnappels M, Bobbert MF, van Dieën JH. How early reactions in the support limb contribute to balance recovery after tripping. J Biomech. 2005;38:627–34. CrossRef
LaRoche DP, Cremin KA, Greenleaf B, Croce RV. Rapid torque development in older female fallers and nonfallers: a comparison across lower-extremity muscles. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2010;20:482–8. CrossRef
Aagaard P, Suetta C, Caserotti P, Magnusson SP, Kjaer M. Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20:49–64. CrossRef
Muehlbauer T, Gollhofer A, Granacher U. Associations between measures of balance and lower-extremity muscle strength/power in healthy individuals across the lifespan: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2015;45:1671–92. CrossRef
Ramirez-Campillo R, Álvarez C, García-Hermoso A, Ramírez-Vélez R, Gentil P, Asadi A, et al. Methodological characteristics and future directions for plyometric jump training research: a scoping review. Sports Med. 2018;40:106–23.
Wathen D. Literature review: explosive/plyometric exercises. Natl Strength Condit Assoc J. 1993;15:17. CrossRef
Potach DH, Chu DA. Program design and technique for plyometric training. In: Haff GG, Triplett NT, editors. Essentials of strength training and conditioning. 4th ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2015, pp 471–520
Cakar E, Dincer U, Kiralp MZ, Cakar DB, Durmus O, Kilac H, et al. Jumping combined exercise programs reduce fall risk and improve balance and life quality of elderly people who live in a long-term care facility. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2010;46:59–67. PubMed
Mehrholz J, Rutte K, Pohl M. Jump training is feasible for nearly ambulatory patients after stroke. Clin Rehabil. 2006;20:406–12. CrossRef
Bedoya AA, Miltenberger MR, Lopez RM. Plyometric training effects on athletic performance in youth soccer athletes: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29:2351–60. CrossRef
Johnson BA, Salzberg CL, Stevenson DA. A systematic review: plyometric training programs for young children. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:2623–33. CrossRef
Slimani M, Chamari K, Miarka B, Del Vecchio FB, Chéour F. Effects of plyometric training on physical fitness in team sport athletes: a systematic review. J Hum Kinet. 2016;53:231–47. CrossRef
Gómez-Bruton A, Matute-Llorente Á, González-Agüero A, Casajús JA, Vicente-Rodríguez G. Plyometric exercise and bone health in children and adolescents: a systematic review. World J Pediatr. 2017;13:112–21. CrossRef
Moran J, Ramirez-Campillo R, Granacher U. Effects of jumping exercise on muscular power in older adults: a meta-analysis. Sports Med. Epub 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-1002-5.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG; PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6:e1000097. CrossRef
Maher CG, Sherrington C, Herbert RD, Moseley AM, Elkins M. Reliability of the PEDro scale for rating quality of randomized controlled trials. Phys Ther. 2003;83:713–21. PubMed
Allison SJ, Folland JP, Rennie WJ, Summers GD, Brooke-Wavell K. High impact exercise increased femoral neck bone mineral density in older men: a randomised unilateral intervention. Bone. 2013;53:321–8. CrossRef
Allison SJ, Poole KES, Treece GM, Gee AH, Tonkin C, Rennie WJ, et al. The influence of high-impact exercise on cortical and trabecular bone mineral content and 3D distribution across the proximal femur in older men: a randomized controlled unilateral intervention. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30:1709–16. CrossRef
Bolton KL, Egerton T, Wark J, Wee E, Matthews B, Kelly A, et al. Effects of exercise on bone density and falls risk factors in post-menopausal women with osteopenia: a randomised controlled trial. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15:102–9. CrossRef
Karinkanta S, Heinonen A, Sievänen H, Uusi-Rasi K, Pasanen M, Ojala K, et al. A multi-component exercise regimen to prevent functional decline and bone fragility in home-dwelling elderly women: randomized, controlled trial. Osteoporos Int. 2007;18:453–62. CrossRef
Karinkanta S, Heinonen A, Sievänen H, Uusi-Rasi K, Fogelholm M, Kannus P. Maintenance of exercise-induced benefits in physical functioning and bone among elderly women. Osteoporos Int. 2009;20:665–74. CrossRef
Karinkanta S, Nupponen R, Heinonen A, Pasanen M, Sievänen H, Uusi-Rasi K, et al. Effects of exercise on health-related quality of life and fear of falling in home-dwelling older women. J Aging Phys Act. 2012;20:198–214. CrossRef
Karinkanta S, Kannus P, Uusi-Rasi K, Heinonen A, Sievänen H. Combined resistance and balance-jumping exercise reduces older women’s injurious falls and fractures: 5-year follow-up study. Age Ageing. 2015;44:784–9. CrossRef
Bolam KA, Skinner TL, Jenkins DG, Galv o DA, Taaffe DR. The osteogenic effect of impact-loading and resistance exercise on bone mineral density in middle-aged and older men: a pilot study. Gerontology. 2015;62:22–32.
Marín-Cascales E, Alcaraz PE, Rubio-Arias JA. Effects of 24 weeks of whole body vibration versus multicomponent training on muscle strength and body composition in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Rejuvenation Res. 2017;20:193–201. CrossRef
Marín-Cascales E, Rubio-Arias JA, Romero-Arenas S, Alcaraz PE. Effect of 12 weeks of whole-body vibration versus multi-component training in post-menopausal women. Rejuvenation Res. 2015;18:508–16. CrossRef
Ramírez Villada JF, León Ariza HH, Jiménez AS, Sepúlveda CM. Alterations in body composition, capillary glucose and functionality during explosive strength training in older women. Int J Disabil Hum Dev. 2016;15:157. CrossRef
Correa C, LaRoche D, Cadore E, Reischak-Oliveira A, Bottaro M, Kruel LF, et al. 3 different types of strength training in older women. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33:962–9. CrossRef
Piirainen JM, Cronin NJ, Avela J, Linnamo V. Effects of plyometric and pneumatic explosive strength training on neuromuscular function and dynamic balance control in 60–70 year old males. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2014;24:246–52. CrossRef
Rantalainen T, Hoffrén M, Linnamo V, Heinonen A, Komi PV, Avela J, et al. Three-month bilateral hopping intervention is ineffective in initiating bone biomarker response in healthy elderly men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111:2155–62. CrossRef
Hoffrén-Mikkola M, Ishikawa M, Rantalainen T, Avela J, Komi PV. Neuromuscular mechanics and hopping training in elderly. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014;115:863–77. CrossRef
Váczi M, Nagy SA, Kőszegi T, Ambrus M, Bogner P, Perlaki G, et al. Mechanical, hormonal, and hypertrophic adaptations to 10 weeks of eccentric and stretch-shortening cycle exercise training in old males. Exp Gerontol. 2014;58:69–77. CrossRef
Park J, Cho K, Lee W. Effect of jumping exercise on muscle strength and balance of elderly people: a randomized controlled trial. J Phys Ther Sci. 2012;24:1345–8. CrossRef
Ramirez-Campillo R, Andrade DC, Izquierdo M. Effects of plyometric training volume and training surface on explosive strength. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:2714–22. CrossRef
Conlon JA, Newton RU, Tufano JJ, Banyard HG, Hopper AJ, Ridge AJ, et al. Periodization strategies in older adults: impact on physical function and health. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48:2426–36. CrossRef
Conlon JA, Newton RU, Tufano JJ, Peñailillo LE, Banyard HG, Hopper AJ, et al. The efficacy of periodised resistance training on neuromuscular adaptation in older adults. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017;117:1181–94. CrossRef
Bosco C, Viitasalo JT, Komi PV, Luhtanen P. Combined effect of elastic energy and myoelectrical potentiation during stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. 1982;114:557–65. CrossRef
Bosco C, Tarkka I, Komi PV. Effect of elastic energy and myoelectrical potentiation of triceps surae during stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Int J Sports Med. 1982;3:137–40. CrossRef
Kemmler W, Lauber D, Weineck J, Hensen J, Kalender W, Engelke K. Benefits of 2 years of intense exercise on bone density, physical fitness, and blood lipids in early postmenopausal osteopenic women: results of the Erlangen Fitness Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS). Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1084–91. CrossRef
Devita P, Skelly WA. Effect of landing stiffness on joint kinetics and energetics in the lower extremity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24:108–15. PubMed
Watson SL, Weeks BK, Weis LJ, Harding AT, Horan SA, Beck BR. High-intensity resistance and impact training improves bone mineral density and physical function in postmenopausal women with osteopenia and osteoporosis: the LIFTMOR randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2018;33:211–20. CrossRef
de Kam D, Smulders E, Weerdesteyn V, Smits-Engelsman BCM. Exercise interventions to reduce fall-related fractures and their risk factors in individuals with low bone density: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Osteoporos Int. 2009;20:2111–25. CrossRef
Denkinger MD, Lukas A, Nikolaus T, Hauer K. Factors associated with fear of falling and associated activity restriction in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015;23:72–86. CrossRef
Jefferis BJ, Iliffe S, Kendrick D, Kerse N, Trost S, Lennon LT, et al. How are falls and fear of falling associated with objectively measured physical activity in a cohort of community-dwelling older men? BMC Geriatr. 2014;14:114. CrossRef
Cadore EL, Rodriguez-Mañas L, Sinclair A, Izquierdo M. Effects of different exercise interventions on risk of falls, gait ability, and balance in physically frail older adults: a systematic review. Rejuvenation Res. 2013;16:105–14. CrossRef
Byrne C, Faure C, Keene DJ, Lamb SE. Ageing, muscle power and physical function: a systematic review and implications for pragmatic training interventions. Sports Med. 2016;46:1–22. CrossRef
Trombetti A, Reid KF, Hars M, Herrmann FR, Pasha E, Phillips EM, et al. Age-associated declines in muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance: impact on fear of falling and quality of life. Osteoporos Int. 2016;27:463–71. CrossRef
Strollo SE, Caserotti P, Ward RE, Glynn NW, Goodpaster BH, Strotmeyer ES. A review of the relationship between leg power and selected chronic disease in older adults. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19:240–8. CrossRef
Ramirez-Campillo R, Martínez C, La Fuente de CI, Cadore EL, Marques MC, Nakamura FY, et al. High-speed resistance training in older women: the role of supervision. J Aging Phys Act. 2017;25:1–9. CrossRef
- The Efficacy and Safety of Lower-Limb Plyometric Training in Older Adults: A Systematic Review
James J. Tufano
- Springer International Publishing
Print ISSN: 0112-1642
Elektronische ISSN: 1179-2035
Neu im Fachgebiet Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Mail Icon II