We conducted a meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs to assess the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in spine surgery.
Potentially relevant academic articles were identified from the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (1966–2017.11), PubMed (1966–2017.11), Embase (1980–2017.11), and ScienceDirect (1985–2017.11). Secondary sources were identified from the references of the included literature. The pooled data were analyzed using RevMan 5.1.
Three RCTs and one non-RCT met the inclusion criteria. There were significant differences in total blood loss (MD = − 267.53, 95% CI − 373.04 to − 106.02, P < 0.00001), drainage volume (MD = − 157.00, 95% CI − 191.17 to − 122.84, P < 0.00001), postoperative hemoglobin level (MD = 0.95, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.47, P = 0.0003), and length of hospital stay (MD = − 1.42, 95% CI − 1.92 to − 0.93, P < 0.00001). No significant differences were found regarding transfusion requirement, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), wound hematoma, and infection between the two groups.
The present meta-analysis indicated that the topical application of TXA in spinal surgery decreases the total blood loss and drainage volume and preserves higher postoperative hemoglobin level without increasing the risk of DVT infection, hematoma, DVT, and PE.