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17.05.2015 | Elbow | Ausgabe 7/2017

Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy 7/2017

The Elbow Self-Assessment Score (ESAS): development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measurement tool for elbow disorders

Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy > Ausgabe 7/2017
Marc Beirer, Henrik Friese, Andreas Lenich, Moritz Crönlein, Gunther H. Sandmann, Peter Biberthaler, Chlodwig Kirchhoff, Sebastian Siebenlist



To develop and validate an elbow self-assessment score considering subjective as well as objective parameters.


Each scale of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons-Elbow Score, the Broberg and Morrey rating system (BMS), the Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation (PREE) Questionnaire, the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (Quick-DASH) was analysed, and after matching of the general topics, the dedicated items underwent a fusion to the final ESAS’s item and a score containing 22 items was created. In a prospective clinical study, validity, reliability and responsiveness in physically active patients with traumatic as well as degenerative elbow disorders were evaluated.


Validation study included 103 patients (48 women, 55 men; mean age 43 years). A high test–retest reliability was found with intraclass correlation coefficients of at least 0.71. Construct validity and responsiveness were confirmed by correlation coefficients of −0.80 to −0.84 and 0.72–0.84 (p <0.05). Correlation coefficients of the ESAS and well-established elbow rating systems BMS, PREE, MEPS, OES and Quick-DASH were between 0.70 and 0.90 (p < 0.05).


With this novel Elbow Self-Assessment Score (ESAS), a valid and reliable instrument for a qualitative self-assessment of subjective and objective parameters (e.g. range of motion) of the elbow joint is demonstrated. Quantitative measurement of elbow function may not longer be limited to specific elbow disorders or patient groups. The ESAS seems to allow for a broad application in clinical research studying elbow patients and may facilitate the comparison of treatment results in elbow disorders. The treatment efficacy can be easily evaluated, and treatment concepts could be reviewed and revised.

Level of evidence

Diagnostic study, Level III.

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