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26.06.2019 | Original Article

The evaluation of the effectiveness of intra-articular steroid, tenoxicam, and combined steroid–tenoxicam injections in the treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis

Zeitschrift:
Clinical Rheumatology
Autor:
Ebru Yilmaz
Wichtige Hinweise

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Abstract

Objective

Although intra-articular corticosteroid injections are widely applied in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA), its effect is short term. Additionally, apart from oral use, tenoxicam is also applied as an intra-articular treatment option to minimize gastrointestinal side effects of NSAIDs. Clinical evidence suggests that the combined use of NSAIDs and corticosteroids is synergistic (especially macular edema after cataract surgery in ophthalmology). Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine whether the combination of intra-articular steroid and tenoxicam was more effective for a long period rather than only tenoxicam and steroid injection alone in OA treatment.

Methods

Ninety patients were randomly divided into three groups (30 patients per group): group 1, group 2, and group 3 were treated by intra-articular injection of tenoxicam, triamcinolone hexacetonide, and triamcinolone hexacetonide plus tenoxicam, respectively. Visual analog scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) were enrolled at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months post-injection.

Results

The mean age of patients was 68.07 ± 8.08, 65.83 ± 10.13, and 67.07 ± 6.01 in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively. In tenoxicam group, median pre- and post-treatment (at 1, 3, and 6 months) VAS/WOMAC scores were 7.30 ± 0.53/32.50 ± 3.79, 2.27 ± 0.98/10.83 ± 2.61, 6.73 ± 1.14/30.33 ± 5.93, and 7.03 ± 0.80/31.37 ± 4.38, respectively. In steroid group, median pre- and post-treatment VAS/WOMAC scores were 7.60 ± 0.49/34.33 ± 3.40, 1.37 ± 1.21/8.83 ± 2.70, 6.87 ± 1.35/30.80 ± 7.70, and 7.27 ± 0.86/32.83 ± 4.87, respectively. In steroid plus tenoxicam group, median pre- and post-treatment VAS/WOMAC scores were 7.57 ± 0.50/33.20 ± 3.66, 0.33 ± 0.47/6.67 ± 0.95, 0.93 ± 0.98/7.87 ± 1.96, and 1.97 ± 1.12/10.43 ± 3.70, respectively. VAS and WOMAC scores in 1 month after the injection significantly decreased in both groups compared to baseline (p < 0.01). Steroid plus tenoxicam group showed significantly improved VAS and WOMAC scores when compared to only steroid and tenoxicam group at follow-up 3 and 6 months (p < 0.01).

Conclusion

The combined therapy seems to produce a more effective result for a long period than monotherapy in reducing pain and improving functional recovery.

Key points

There is an evidence of short-term effects of intra-articular corticosteroid injection in treatment of knee OA; however, there is no consensus for the long-term benefit of this treatment yet.
Apart from oral use, tenoxicam is also applied as an intra-articular treatment option to minimize gastrointestinal side effects of NSAIDs.
Clinical evidence suggests that the combined use of NSAIDs and corticosteroids is synergistic (especially macular edema after cataract surgery in ophthalmology).
The combined therapy seems to produce a more effective result for a long period than alone therapy.

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