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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1/2012

The German adaptation of the Cambridge pulmonary hypertension outcome review (CAMPHOR)

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes > Ausgabe 1/2012
Katharina Cima, James Twiss, Rudolf Speich, Stephen P McKenna, Ekkehard Grünig, Christian M Kähler, Nicola Ehlken, Ursula Treder, Sigrid R Crawford, Lars C Huber, Silvia Ulrich
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1477-7525-10-110) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

None of the authors have any competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

KC contributed to data acquisition, data analysis and drafting of the article. JT and SPM, contributed to study design, data collection, data analysis and interpretation of results. RS contributed to study design, data collection, data analysis, and drafting of the manuscript. EG, CMK, NE, UT contributed to data acquisition. SRC contributed to data analysis and interpretation of results. LCH contributed to data analysis and drafting of the manuscript. SU contributed to study design and data acquisition. All authors were involved with the critical revision of the manuscript.



Individuals with precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) experience severely impaired quality of life. A disease-specific outcome measure for PH, the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) was developed and validated in the UK and subsequently adapted for use in additional countries. The aim of this study was to translate and assess the reliability and validity of the CAMPHOR for German-speaking populations.


Three main adaptation stages involved; translation (employing bilingual and lay panels), cognitive debriefing interviews with patients and validation (assessment of the adaptation’s psychometric properties). The psychometric evaluation included 107 patients with precapillary PH (60 females; age mean (standard deviation) 60 (15) years) from 3 centres in Austria, Germany and Switzerland.


No major problems were found with the translation process with most items easily rendered into acceptable German. Participants in the cognitive debriefing interviews found the questionnaires relevant, comprehensive and easy to complete. Psychometric analyses showed that the adaptation was successful. The three CAMPHOR scales (symptoms, activity limitations and quality of life) had excellent test-retest reliability correlations (Symptoms = 0.91; Activity limitations = 0.91; QoL = 0.90) and internal consistency (Symptoms = 0.94; Activity limitations = 0.93; QoL = 0.94). Predicted correlations with the Nottingham Health Profile provided evidence of the construct validity of the CAMPHOR scales. The CAMPHOR adaptation also showed known group validity in its ability to distinguish between participants based on perceived general health, perceived disease severity, oxygen use and NYHA classification.


The CAMPHOR has been shown to be valid and reliable in the German population and is recommend for use in clinical practice.
Authors’ original file for figure 1
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