01.04.2015 | Oncology | Ausgabe 4/2015
The Histogram Analysis of Diffusion-Weighted Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) Imaging for Differentiating the Gleason grade of Prostate Cancer
- Yu-Dong Zhang, Qing Wang, Chen-Jiang Wu, Xiao-Ning Wang, Jing Zhang, Hui Liu, Xi-Sheng Liu, Hai-Bin Shi
To evaluate histogram analysis of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for discriminating the Gleason grade of prostate cancer (PCa).
A total of 48 patients pathologically confirmed as having clinically significant PCa (size > 0.5 cm) underwent preoperative DW-MRI (b of 0–900 s/mm2). Data was post-processed by monoexponential and IVIM model for quantitation of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs), perfusion fraction f, diffusivity D and pseudo-diffusivity D*. Histogram analysis was performed by outlining entire-tumour regions of interest (ROIs) from histological–radiological correlation. The ability of imaging indices to differentiate low-grade (LG, Gleason score (GS) ≤6) from intermediate/high-grade (HG, GS > 6) PCa was analysed by ROC regression.
Eleven patients had LG tumours (18 foci) and 37 patients had HG tumours (42 foci) on pathology examination. HG tumours had significantly lower ADCs and D in terms of mean, median, 10th and 75th percentiles, combined with higher histogram kurtosis and skewness for ADCs, D and f, than LG PCa (p < 0.05). Histogram D showed relatively higher correlations (ñ = 0.641–0.668 vs. ADCs: 0.544–0.574) with ordinal GS of PCa; and its mean, median and 10th percentile performed better than ADCs did in distinguishing LG from HG PCa.
It is feasible to stratify the pathological grade of PCa by IVIM with histogram metrics. D performed better in distinguishing LG from HG tumour than conventional ADCs.
• GS had relatively higher correlation with tumour D than ADCs.
• Difference of histogram D among two-grade tumours was statistically significant.
• D yielded better individual features in demonstrating tumour grade than ADC.
• D* and f failed to determine tumour grade of PCa.