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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Public Health 1/2015

The impact of physical activity on cumulative cardiovascular disease risk factors among Malaysian adults

Zeitschrift:
BMC Public Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Autoren:
Rajah Rasiah, Govindamal Thangiah, Khalid Yusoff, Rishya Manikam, Sankara Kumar Chandrasekaran, Rujhan Mustafa, Najmin Binti Abu Bakar
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

RR jointly conceived the project, coordinated the statistical analysis and jointly wrote the paper, participated in the revision of the paper, agreeable to offering approval for publication of the paper, and shall be accountable for the work. TG undertook the statistical analysis, contributed significantly to the interpretation of the data, participated in the revision of the paper, agreeable to offering approval for publication of the paper, and shall be accountable for the work. YK jointly conceived the project, jointly coordinated the data collection and contributed significantly to the interpretation of the data, is agreeable to offering approval for publication of the paper, and shall be accountable for the work. MR jointly conceived the project and contributed significantly to the interpretation of the data, is agreeable to offering approval for publication of the paper, and shall be accountable for the work. CSK jointly conceived the project, contributed significantly to the interpretation of the data, is agreeable to offering approval for publication of the paper, and shall be accountable for the work. MR contributed significantly to the interpretation of the data, is agreeable to offering approval for publication of the paper, and shall be accountable for the work. ABN jointly coordinated the data collection, contributed significantly to the interpretation of the data, is agreeable to offering approval for publication of the paper and shall be accountable for the work.

Authors’ information

RR Department of Development Studies, University of Malaya, Malaysia. TG Department of Development Studies, University of Malaya, Malaysia. YK Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. MR Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia. CSK Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia. MR Malaysian Qualifying Agency, Malaysia. ABN Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

Abstract

Background

Numerous studies have shown the importance of physical activity in reducing the morbidity and mortality rates caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, most of these studies emphasise little on the cumulative effect of CVD risk factors. Hence, this study investigates the association between physical exercise and cumulative CVD risk factors among adults in three different age groups.

Methods

Using a sample of 7276 respondents drawn from community centers, the REDISCOVER team gathered information on physical activity, CVD risk factors (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, tobacco use) and socioeconomic and demographic variables in Malaysia. Because the study required medical examination, a convenience sampling frame was preferred in which all volunteers were included in the study. Fasting blood samples and anthropometric (height, weight and more) measurements were collected by trained staffs. Socio-demographic and physical activity variables were recorded through questionnaires. A Chi-square test was performed to identify the bivariate association between the covariates (socioeconomic variables, demographic variables and physical activity) and outcome variable. The association between the main exposure, physical activity, and the outcome variable, cumulative CVD risk factors, was assessed using an ordinal logistic regression model, controlling for socioeconomic status and demographic influences in three different age groups, 35–49, 50–64 and 65 and above.

Results

The mean age of participants is 51.8 (SD = 9.4). Respondents in the age groups of 35–49 (aORmoderate = 0.12; 95 % CI: 0.02 - 0.53 ) and 65 and above (aORhigh = 0.58; 95 % CI: 0.24, 0.78) showed a statistically significant inverse relationship between physical activity and cumulative CVD risk factors. However, this relationship was not significant among respondents in the 50–64 age group suggesting the possible influence of other variables, such as stress and environment.

Conclusions

The statistically significant results show a negative association between physical exercise and cumulative CVD risk factors. However, the lack of a significant relationship in the 50–64 age group suggests the need to include other considerations in future studies, such as stress and environment.
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