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01.12.2018 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

International Journal of Implant Dentistry 1/2018

The influence of systemically or locally administered mesenchymal stem cells on tissue repair in a rat oral implantation model

Zeitschrift:
International Journal of Implant Dentistry > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
Miya Kanazawa, Ikiru Atsuta, Yasunori Ayukawa, Takayoshi Yamaza, Ryosuke Kondo, Yuri Matsuura, Kiyoshi Koyano

Abstract

Background

Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used clinically in regenerative medicine. Our previous report showed systemically injected MSCs improved peri-implant sealing and accelerated tissue healing. However, the risks of systemic MSC administration, including lung embolism, must be considered; therefore, their local application must be assessed for clinical safety and efficacy. We investigated differences in treatment effect between local and systemic MSC application using a rat oral implantation model.

Methods

Rat bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated and culture-expanded. The rat’s right maxillary first molars were extracted and replaced with experimental titanium implants. After 24 h, MSCs (1 × 106/ml) were systemically or locally injected into recipient rats via the tail vein (systemic group) or buccal subcutaneous tissue (local group), respectively. Rats treated in the absence of MSCs were included as a control (control group). The maxillary epithelium was assessed histologically after 4 weeks to evaluate laminin-332 (Ln-332) distribution and horseradish peroxidase invasion, as indicators of peri-implant epithelium (PIE) formation and PIE sealing to the implant surface, respectively. The effect of MSCs on rat oral epithelial cell (OEC) morphology was determined by coculture.

Results

Systemic group MSCs accumulated early at the peri-implant mucosa, while local group MSCs were observed in various organs prior to later accumulation around the implant surface. PIE formation and Ln-332-positive staining at the implant interface were enhanced in the systemic group compared with the local and control groups. Furthermore, OEC adherence on implants was reduced in high-density compared with low-density MSC cocultures.

Conclusions

Local MSC injection was more ineffective than systemic MSC injection at enhancing PIE sealing around titanium implants. Thus, although local MSC administration has a wide range of applications, further investigations are needed to understand the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms of this approach prior to clinical use.
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