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01.12.2018 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Infectious Diseases 1/2018

The magnitude of antibiotic resistance to Helicobacter pylori in Africa and identified mutations which confer resistance to antibiotics: systematic review and meta-analysis

BMC Infectious Diseases > Ausgabe 1/2018
Hyasinta Jaka, Jee Ah. Rhee, Linda Östlundh, Luke Smart, Robert Peck, Andreas Mueller, Christa Kasang, Stephen E. Mshana
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12879-018-3099-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



Worldwide Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) treatment is of great challenge due to increased antibiotic resistance. The burden of H. pylori antibiotic resistance in Africa is high with unclear information regarding the real magnitude. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the magnitude of H.pylori antibiotic resistance in Africa to gain insight of the extent of the problem among H.pylori naïve treatment patients.


The search was performed in the academic databases, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science and Africa Wide Information. ProQuest Dissertation and Theses, Scopus, Ethos, Africa Index Medicus (WHO), BioMed Central Proceedings, BASE, British Library, Open grey, Library of Congress and the New York Academy of Grey Literature Report were additionally searched for grey literature. Published articles from Africa on H.pylori antibiotic resistance between 1986 and June 2017 were systematically reviewed to estimate the H. pylori extent of resistance to macrolides, quinolones, amoxicillin, tetracycline and metronidazole.


In 26 articles a total of 2085 isolates were tested for metronidazole, 1530 for amoxicillin, 1277 for tetracycline, 1752 for clarithromycin and 823 for quinolones.The overall pooled proportion of H.pylori resistance to quinolones, clarithromycin, tetracycline, metronidazole and amoxicillin were: (17.4%, 95%CI 12.8 - 21.9), (29.2%, 95%CI:26.7-31.8), (48.7%, 95%CI: 44.5-52.9), (75.8%, 95% CI: 74.1-.77.4) and (72.6%, 95% CI: 68.6-76.6), respectively. The commonest mutation detected were A2143G (49/97) for clarithromycin, RdxA (41/56) for metronidazole and D87I (16/40) for quinolones.


Prevalence of metronidazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin resistance is high in developing world including Africa. This could impair the first line triple therapy of the H.pylori infection. There is a need of conducting surveillance of H.pylori susceptibility pattern in Africa for dual and triple resistance which can be used for the empirical treatment.
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