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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the moderating role of lifestyle, age, and years working in shifts and, shift work and being overweight.
Cross-sectional data were used of 2569 shift and 4848 non-shift production workers who participated between 2013 and 2018 in an occupational health check. Overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) was calculated using measured weight and height; lifestyle was assessed by questionnaires. Multiple-adjusted logistic regression with interaction terms between shift work and potential moderators assessed multiplicative interaction; the relative excess risk due to interaction assessed additive interaction (synergism).
Shift work was significantly related to being overweight (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.33 1.76). The strength of this association did not differ by level of sleep quality, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity (p ≥ 0.05). Additive and multiplicative interaction by smoking status was present (p < 0.01), with a stronger relationship between shift work and being overweight among non-smokers compared to smokers. Older age as well as more years of exposure to shift work were, independently from each other, related to a stronger relationship between shift work and being overweight (multiplicative interaction p < 0.05).
Shift work was to a similar extent related to being overweight among those with a healthy and unhealthy lifestyle. This does, however, not imply that shift workers can behave unhealthy without any harm. Based on the evident health benefits of a healthy lifestyle, it is still recommended to get sufficient quality of sleep and to meet the recommended level of daily physical activity and, fruit and vegetable intake.
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- The moderating role of lifestyle, age, and years working in shifts in the relationship between shift work and being overweight
Willem van Mechelen
Karin I. Proper
Johannes R. Anema
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Print ISSN: 0340-0131
Elektronische ISSN: 1432-1246