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08.09.2016 | Original Article | Ausgabe 5/2017

Clinical Oral Investigations 5/2017

The prognostic value of GLUT-1 staining in the detection of malignant transformation in oral mucosa

Zeitschrift:
Clinical Oral Investigations > Ausgabe 5/2017
Autoren:
Roman C. Brands, Olga Köhler, Stephan Rauthe, Stefan Hartmann, Harald Ebhardt, Axel Seher, Christian Linz, Alexander C. Kübler, Urs D.A. Müller-Richter

Abstract

Background

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) ranks as the sixth most common tumor entity worldwide. Unfortunately, the multimodal treatment consisting of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy does not show the desired efficacy. The intent of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of an oral brush biopsy in combination with glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 staining in identifying premalignant and malignant lesions.

Methods

A total of 72 patients were included in the study, divided into four diagnostic subgroups (24 healthy, 15 carcinoma, 18 leukoplakia, 15 oral lichen planus). Oral brush biopsies were taken and analyzed for GLUT-1 expression by immunocytologic staining. Incisional biopsy served as the gold standard.

Results

Twelve (80 %) of the 15 carcinomas, nine (50 %) of the 18 leukoplakia, nine (60 %) of the 15 oral lichen planus, and none of the healthy specimens stained positive for GLUT-1. This resulted in a sensitivity rate of 80 % and a specificity rate of 68.42 %. Diagnostic accuracy was 70.83 % based on the correct diagnoses in 51 of 72 patients.

Conclusion

An oral brush biopsy can easily be performed throughout the entire oral cavity, is noninvasive, and shows high sensitivity and specificity rates with conventional cytology or computer-assisted analysis.

Clinical relevance

The significance of GLUT-1-specific staining with an oral brush biopsy is more limited than expected but could be used as an additional tool in detecting malignant transformation in the oral cavity.

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