The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-017-1453-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
We would like to thank Fiona Warren for her statistical advice and comments regarding the study methodology. This research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care South West Peninsula at the Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. We are extremely grateful to all the families who took part in this study, the midwives for their help in recruiting them, and the whole ALSPAC team, which includes interviewers, computer and laboratory technicians, clerical workers, research scientists, volunteers, managers, receptionists and nurses. This publication is the work of the authors and Abigail Russell, Tamsin Ford and Ginny Russell will serve as guarantors for the contents of this paper. This research was specifically funded by a PhD studentship from the University of Exeter Medical School.
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with socioeconomic status (SES), in that children who grow up in low SES families are at an increased risk of ADHD symptoms and diagnosis. The current study explores whether different levels of ADHD symptoms are associated with prior changes in the SES facet of financial difficulty.
Using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we examined symptoms of ADHD measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) hyperactivity subscale in relation to parent-reported changes in financial difficulty, grouped into four repeated measures at four time points across childhood; (n = 6416). A multilevel mixed-effects linear regression model with an unstructured covariance matrix was used to test whether different patterns of financial difficulty were associated with subsequent changes in ADHD symptoms.
Families who had no financial difficulty had children with a lower average ADHD symptom score than groups who experienced financial difficulty. Children whose families stayed in financial difficulty had higher mean ADHD symptom scores than all other groups (No difficulty mean SDQ hyperactivity 3.14, 95% CI 3.07, 3.21, In difficulty mean SDQ hyperactivity 3.39, 95% CI 3.28, 3.45, p < 0.001). Increasing or decreasing financial difficulty predicted mean symptom scores lower than those of the in difficulty group and higher than the no difficulty group.
Our findings contribute to the building evidence that SES may influence the severity and/or impairment associated with the symptoms of ADHD, however the effects of SES are small and have limited clinical significance.
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 26 KB)127_2017_1453_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Linnet KM, Dalsgaard S, Obel C, Wisborg K, Henriksen TB, Rodriguez A, Kotimaa A, Moilanen I, Thomsen PH, Olsen J, Jarvelin MR (2003) Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors: review of the current evidence. Am J Psychiatry 160(6):1028–1040 CrossRefPubMed
Russell AE, Ford T, Russell G (2015) Socioeconomic associations with ADHD: findings from a mediation analysis. PLoS One 10(6):e0128248. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128248 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Kiernan KE, Mensah FK (2009) Poverty, maternal depression, family status and children’s cognitive and behavioural development in early childhood: a longitudinal study. J Soc Policy 38(04):569–588 CrossRef
Kennedy M, Kreppner J, Knights N, Kumsta R, Maughan B, Golm D, Rutter M, Schlotz W, Sonuga-Barke EJ (2016) Early severe institutional deprivation is associated with a persistent variant of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical presentation, developmental continuities and life circumstances in the English and Romanian Adoptees study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 57(10):1113–1125 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Dearden L, Sibieta L, Sylva K (2011) The socio-economic gradient in early child outcomes: evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study. IFS working papers
Miech RA, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Wright BRE, Silva PA (1999) Low socioeconomic status and mental disorders: a longitudinal study of selection and causation during young adulthood 1. Am J Sociol 104(4):1096–1131 CrossRef
ALSPAC (2014) ALSPAC Data Dictionary. http://www.bris.ac.uk/alspac/researchers/data-access/data-dictionary/. Accessed Mar 2014
Russell G, Rodgers LR, Ukoumunne OC, Ford T (2013) Prevalence of parent-reported ASD and ADHD in the UK: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study. J Autism Dev Disord 44(1):31–40 CrossRef
Burgess SM, Propper C, Rigg J (2004) The impact of low income on child health: Evidence from a birth cohort study. LSE STICERD Research Paper No CASE085
Schmiedeler S, Niklas F, Schneider W (2013) Symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and home learning environment (HLE): findings from a longitudinal study. Eur J Psychol Educ 29(3):467–482 CrossRef
- The relationship between financial difficulty and childhood symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a UK longitudinal cohort study
Abigail Emma Russell
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg