The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-017-1005-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Individuals with cerebral palsy have smaller muscle volumes normalised to body mass than their typically developing peers. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between lower limb muscle volume and body mass in young people with bilateral cerebral palsy and their typically developing peers.
Twenty-five participants with bilateral cerebral palsy (aged 14.7±3.0 years, GMFCS level I-III) and 25 of their typically developing peers (aged 16.8±3.3 years) took part in this study. None of the participants had undergone orthopaedic surgery, botulinum toxin injections, or serial casting in the previous year. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of both lower limbs. Nine major muscles of each lower limb were individually manually segmented and the muscle volumes calculated.
Body mass and total lower limb muscle volume were significantly linearly related in both the cerebral palsy (R2 = 0.75, p<0.001) and typically developing (R2 = 0.77, p<0.001) groups. The slope of the relationship between muscle volume and body mass was significantly shallower in the cerebral palsy group compared to the typically developing group (p=0.007).
This cross-sectional study suggests that the increase in size of lower limb muscles relative to body mass is reduced in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Longitudinal studies are required to further investigate altered muscle growth trajectories in this group and their impact on long-term mobility.
Additional file 1: 1. The scaling of lower limb muscles volume to height and body mass. Description of data: A comparison of the power of height, body mass, and height-mass product to explain muscle volume. 2. The relationship between muscle volume and height-mass product. Description of data: A repeat of the analysis of covariance performed in the manuscript to investigate differences between the subject groups using height-mass product instead of body mass as a covariate of muscle volume. 3. The relationship between muscle volume and body mass for participants under 17 years of age. Description of data: A repeat of the analysis of covariance performed in the manuscript to investigate differences between the subject groups using body-mass as the covariate of muscle volume, but with only the subjects aged under 17 years included in the analysis. 4. The relationship of muscle volume to body mass stratified by GMFCS level, Participant intervention history. Description of data: To investigate whether the deficit in muscle volume with increasing body mass in CP may also be dependent on GMFCS level, linear regression and ANOVA were repeated for the CP group stratified by GMFCS level. 5. Participant intervention history. Description of data: A table of the intervention history for each participant. (DOCX 33 kb)
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- The relationship between lower limb muscle volume and body mass in ambulant individuals with bilateral cerebral palsy
Jonathan J. Noble
Nicola R. D. Fry
Andrew P. Lewis
Adam P. Shortland
- BioMed Central