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31.07.2018 | Original Scientific Report | Ausgabe 12/2018 Open Access

World Journal of Surgery 12/2018

The Use of Three-Dimensional Printing Model in the Training of Choledochoscopy Techniques

World Journal of Surgery > Ausgabe 12/2018
Ang Li, Rui Tang, Zhixia Rong, Jianping Zeng, Canhong Xiang, Lihan Yu, Wenping Zhao, Jiahong Dong
Wichtige Hinweise
Ang Li and Rui Tang are co-first authors.



To evaluate the application value of a three-dimensional (3D) printing model in the training of choledochoscopy techniques.

Materials and methods

Imaging data from two patients with biliary dilatation were used to produce two 3D reconstruction models which were subsequently constructed into 3D printing models (No. 1 and No. 2). Four hepatobiliary surgeons evaluated the anatomical accuracy and academic teaching value of the printed models. Twenty resident trainees with no prior experience in any kind of endoscopic techniques were randomly and symmetrically divided into two groups. The training group (A) used the 3D model No. 1 in the learning of biliary tract anatomy and practice techniques of choledochoscopy. The control group (B) got the virtual 3D image of the same model on computer for learning. After 4 weeks, the model No. 2 was used to reassess the trainees’ subjective and objective progress in anatomy familiarity and choledochoscopy manipulations.


All consulted surgeons agreed that the 3D models realistically reproduced the anatomy of the biliary system. All trainees in group A agreed or strongly agreed that the 3D models provided good anatomical realism, enhanced their experience in the training of choledochoscopy techniques, and aided in their learning of biliary anatomy. With the practice went on, they increased the accuracy and showed a reduction in operation time on the model No. 1. During final examination with model No. 2, the rate of correct anatomical structure identification in training group was significantly higher than group B (p < 0.05).


The 3D printed biliary tract model is an excellent teaching tool in the training of choledochoscopy techniques. The 3D model is anatomically realistic and can improve the trainee’s anatomical knowledge and endoscopic skills.

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