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07.03.2019 | Paediatric | Ausgabe 7/2019

European Radiology 7/2019

The value of non-invasive vascular elastography (NIVE) in detecting early vascular changes in overweight and obese children

Zeitschrift:
European Radiology > Ausgabe 7/2019
Autoren:
Ramy El Jalbout, Guy Cloutier, Marie-Hélène Roy-Cardinal, Mélanie Henderson, Emile Levy, Chantale Lapierre, Gilles Soulez, Josée Dubois
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Abstract

Objectives

Evaluate non-invasive vascular elastography (NIVE) in detecting vascular changes associated with obese children.

Methods

Case-control study to evaluate NIVE in 120 children, 60 with elevated body mass index (BMI) (≥ 85th percentile for age and sex). Participants were randomly selected from a longitudinal cohort, evaluating consequences of obesity in healthy children with one obese parent. Radiofrequency ultrasound videos of the common carotid artery were obtained. The carotid wall was segmented and NIVE applied to measure cumulated axial strain (CAS), cumulated axial translation (CAT), cumulated lateral translation (CLT), maximal shear strain (Max |SSE|), and intima-media thickness (IMT). Multivariate analyses were used controlling for age, sex, Tanner stage, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein. Statistical significance was set to 0.05–0.008. Participants were 10–13 years old (mean 11.4 and 12.0, for normal and elevated BMI groups, p < 0.001), 58% and 63% boys, respectively. Groups differed in age, Tanner stage, and blood pressure. In the normal BMI group, there was weak correlation between systolic blood pressure and Max |SSE| (r = 0.316, p = 0.01) and weak correlation between pulse pressure and Max |SSE| (r = 0.259, p = 0.045). After Bonferroni correction, CAT was significantly higher in the elevated BMI group (0.68 ± 0.24 mm vs. 0.52 ± 0.18 mm), p < 0.001. CAS/CAT was significantly lower in the elevated BMI group (9.54 ± 4.8 vs. 13.34 ± 6.46), p = 0.001. IMT was significantly higher in the elevated BMI group (0.36 ± 0.05 mm vs. 0.32 ± 0.05 mm) before Bonferroni correction, p = 0.013.

Conclusions

NIVE detected differences in CAT and CAS/CAT in elevated BMI children. NIVE is a promising technique to monitor radiological markers of subclinical atherosclerosis.

Key Points

• NIVE is a non-invasive technique based on measurement of subsegmental focal deformation of vascular wall to detect subclinical changes in arterial wall compliance.
• Children with elevated BMI showed increased carotid artery wall movement during systole, as compared to normal BMI children (mean 0.68 ± 0.24 mm vs. 0.52 ± 0.18 mm; p < 0.001) and a lower ratio of vascular wall strain to wall movement during systole (mean 9.54 ± 4.8 vs. 13.34 ± 6.46; p = 0.001).
• The detection of these subclinical changes helps physicians in the stratification of children at risk of atherosclerosis and guides in the implementation of preventive measures.

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