Flavonoids are an important class of natural polyphenolic compounds reported to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, cancer, autoimmune and neurological disorders. Flavonoids possess potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic and immuno-modulation properties. Intriguingly, the importance of flavonoids in different neurological disorders is gaining more attention due to the safety, better pharmacokinetic profile and blood–brain barrier penetration, cost-effectiveness and readiness for clinical uses/trials. Many in vitro and in vivo research studies have established the neuroprotective mechanism of flavonoids in the central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The present review summarizes the benefits of various classes of flavonoids (flavones, flavonols, flavanones, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, flavanols), chemical nature, classification, their occurrence and distribution, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability. The manuscript also presents available evidences relating to the role of flavonoids in regulating key signaling pathways such as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (JAK/STAT) pathway, Toll-like receptors (TLR) pathway, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway involved in neuroinflammation associated with major neurological disorders. Literature search was conducted using electronic databases like Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed central, Springer search and Web of science. Chemical structures used in the present analysis were drawn using Chemdraw Professional 15.0 software. This collective information provides comprehensive knowledge on disease pathways and therapeutic benefits of flavonoids in neurological disorders, druggability and future scope for research.
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