The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12968-018-0487-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
This study demonstrates a three-dimensional (3D) free-breathing native myocardial T1 mapping sequence at 3 T.
The proposed sequence acquires three differently T1-weighted volumes. The first two volumes receive a saturation pre-pulse with different recovery time. The third volume is acquired without magnetization preparation and after a significant recovery time. Respiratory navigator gating and volume-interleaved acquisition are adopted to mitigate misregistration. The proposed sequence was validated through simulation, phantom experiments and in vivo experiments in 12 healthy adult subjects.
In phantoms, good agreement on T1 measurement was achieved between the proposed sequence and the reference inversion recovery spin echo sequence (R2 = 0.99). Homogeneous 3D T1 maps were obtained from healthy adult subjects, with a T1 value of 1476 ± 53 ms and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 6.1 ± 1.4% over the whole left-ventricular myocardium. The averaged septal T1 was 1512 ± 60 ms with a CV of 2.1 ± 0.5%.
Free-breathing 3D native T1 mapping at 3 T is feasible and may be applicable in myocardial assessment. The proposed 3D T1 mapping sequence is suitable for applications in which larger coverage is desired beyond that available with single-shot parametric mapping, or breath-holding is unfeasible.
Additional file 1: Figure S1. The mean coefficient of variation of phantom T1 measured by the proposed sequence under different readout flip angles. Figure S2. Results of the phantom experiment for saturation efficiency measurement. a: T1 map. b: Saturation efficiency map. c: The histogram of the saturation efficiency. High saturation efficiency (0.999±0.012) over all phantoms (T1: 300-2000 ms) was achieved. Table S1. The average navigator gating efficiency of IMG1 and IMG2 during the scans of the proposed sequence on the human subjects (n = 12). Figure S3. Weighted images acquired by the proposed sequence on one subject without and with using fat-suppression (FS) and the corresponding T1 maps. Figure S4. Image SNR comparison between the proposed sequence and 2D SASHA. The SNR was defined as signal (S) divided by standard deviation of noise (σ), in which the S was calculated as mean signal intensity of septum (red ROI on the weighted images), while σ was calculated from a ROI covering the left ventricle on the noise images. The unshown images (i.e. IMG3-IMG9) of 2D SASHA had SNR between that of IMG2 and IMG10. (DOCX 2258 kb)12968_2018_487_MOESM1_ESM.docx
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- Three-dimensional free breathing whole heart cardiovascular magnetic resonance T1 mapping at 3 T
Daniel A. Herzka
- BioMed Central
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