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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 1/2015

Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of ankle, knee, hip, and pelvic rotation during gait in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - early results

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders > Ausgabe 1/2015
Andrzej Czamara, Iga Markowska, Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

All the authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

ACz - study design, data collection, data interpretation, manuscript preparation, literature search, founds collection. IM – data collection, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation. MHD – data interpretation, manuscript preparation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



The goal of this study was to biomechanically assess tibial rotation in the knee joint simultaneous changes in rotation of large joints of the lower limbs and pelvis during gait in patients during early postoperative stages following anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR) reconstruction.
We hypothesized that tibial rotation is associated with changes in rotation of the large joints of the lower limbs and the pelvis during gait in patients after ACLR reconstruction.


The patients were divided into two groups. The ACLR group (n = 32 males) underwent primary ACLR in one leg and postoperative physiotherapy. The control group (n = 30 males) had no knee injuries. After clinical assessment in both groups, the values of kinematic parameters of foot, tibial, femoral, and pelvic rotation were measured during gait on a flat surface using the three-dimensional BTS Smart System. In the ACLR group, measurements were taken during the 4th, 9th, and 14th weeks of postoperative physiotherapy. The results of the ACLR group were compared with those of the control group.


During gait, between the 9th and 14th weeks following ACLR, there are normal values of foot, tibia, and pelvic rotation in the operated legs compared with results obtained from un-operated legs and the control group.


Analysis of rotations occurring only in knee joints does not reflect all of the multiarticular disorders of gait kinematics. The study also suggests that analyzing tibial rotation in the knee joint with simultaneous changes in rotation in large joints of the lower limbs provides better opportunities than singular analysis of rotation in the knee joint for the assessment of disorders in gait kinematics.


In gait, at the maximal extension of the knee during preparation for the stance phase, external hip rotation patterns have not been fully restored 14 weeks after ACLR.
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