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01.12.2019 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2019 Open Access

BMC Oral Health 1/2019

Three-dimensional photographic analysis of the face in European adults from southern Spain with normal occlusion: reference anthropometric measurements

BMC Oral Health > Ausgabe 1/2019
M. L. Menéndez López-Mateos, J. Carreño-Carreño, J. C. Palma, J. A. Alarcón, C. Menéndez López-Mateos, M. Menéndez-Núñez
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12903-019-0898-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Recent non-invasive 3D photography method has been applied to facial analysis, offering numerous advantages in orthodontic. The purpose of this study was to analyze the faces of a sample of healthy European adults from southern Spain with normal occlusion in order to establish reference facial soft tissue anthropometric parameters in this specific geographic-ethnic population, as well as to analyze sexual dimorphism.


A sample of 100 healthy adult volunteers consisting of 50 women (mean age, 22.92 ± 1.56 years) and 50 men (mean age, 22.37 ± 2.12 years) were enrolled in this study. All participants had normal occlusion, skeletal Class I, mesofacial pattern, and healthy body mass index. Three-dimensional photographs of the faces were captured non-invasively using Planmeca ProMax 3D ProFace®. Thirty landmarks related to the face, eyes, nose, and orolabial and chin areas were identified.


Male displayed higher values in all vertical and transversal dimensions, with the exception of the lower lip height. Larger differences between sexes were observed in face, mandible, and nose. Male also had higher values in the angular measurements which referred to the nose. No sex differences were found in transverse upper lip prominence or transverse mandibular prominence. No differences were found in the ratio measurements, with the exception of intercantal width/nasal width, which was higher in women than in men.


Reference anthropometric measurements of facial soft tissues have been established in European adults from southern Spain with normal occlusion. Significant sexual dimorphism was found, with remarkable differences in size between sexes
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