The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-232) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
HR and NFS conceived and designed the study. AB, NFS and HR drafted the manuscript. AB and CMJ analysed the data. AB, AT, CMJ, GMW, AS, LF oversaw field collections, bio-assays and conducted laboratory work. All authors read, corrected and approved the final manuscript.
A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide-resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Burkina Faso. For three years, between 2008 and 2010, WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of resistance to all the major classes of insecticides at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season. Species identification and genotyping for target site mutations was also performed and the sporozoite rate in adults determined.
At the onset of the study, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was already prevalent in An. gambiae s.l. from the south-west of the country but mosquitoes from the two sites in central Burkina Faso were largely susceptible. Within three years, DDT and permethrin resistance was established in all four sites. Carbamate and organophosphate resistance remains relatively rare and largely confined to the south-western areas although a small number of bendiocarb survivors were found in all sites by the final round of monitoring. The ace-1 R target site resistance allele was present in all localities and its frequency exceeded 20% in 2010 in two of the sites. The frequency of the 1014F kdr mutation increased throughout the three years and by 2010, the frequency of 1014F in all sites combined was 0.02 in Anopheles arabiensis, 0.56 in An. gambiae M form and 0.96 in An. gambiae S form. This frequency did not differ significantly between the sites. The 1014S kdr allele was only found in An. arabiensis but its frequency increased significantly throughout the study (P = 0.0003) and in 2010 the 1014S allele frequency was 0.08 in An. arabiensis. Maximum sporozoite rates (12%) were observed in Soumousso in 2009 and the difference between sites is significant for each year.
Pyrethroid and DDT resistance is now established in An. gambiae s.l. throughout Burkina Faso. Results from diagnostic dose assays are highly variable within and between rounds of testing, and hence it is important that resistance monitoring is carried out on more than one occasion before decisions on insecticide procurement for vector control are made. The presence of 1014S in An. gambiae s.l., in addition to 1014F, is not unexpected given the recent report of 1014S in Benin but highlights the importance of monitoring for both mutations throughout the continent. Future research must now focus on the impact that this resistance is having on malaria control in Burkina Faso.
Additional file 1: Pyrethroid bio-assay results for Anopheles gambiae s.l. in four localities after exposure to PBO 4%. An. gambiae mosquitoes, collected from four sentinel sites in 2010 have been exposed to PBO 4% for xxmin, prior to an exposure deltamethrin Permethrin for 1 hour. This table presents the mortality and standard error for each insecticide and locality. (DOC 31 KB)12936_2012_2458_MOESM1_ESM.doc
Additional file 2: Species composition of An gambiae s.l between the mid and end of the malaria transmission season. The data provided represent the statistical comparison of An. gambiae complex species and molecular forms composition between the mid and end of malaria transmission season during the three years of the study in the four localities. An. gambiae M form (M), An. gambiae S form (S), hybrid of S and M form, (H) and An. arabiensis (B) proportions are given by collection round, the mean and confidence limits (CL) of the proportion are given for each species and locality. The total number of mosquitoes PCR-tested is given for each round (R1, R2) and the P value comparing species composition between rounds is given. (RTF 150 KB)12936_2012_2458_MOESM2_ESM.rtf
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- Three years of insecticide resistance monitoring in Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso: resistance on the rise?
Christopher M Jones
Wamdaogo M Guelbeogo
- BioMed Central
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