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01.12.2016 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2016 Open Access

BMC Infectious Diseases 1/2016

Title: role of matrix metalloproteinase −9 in progression of tuberculous meningitis: a pilot study in patients at different stages of the disease

BMC Infectious Diseases > Ausgabe 1/2016
S. Majeed, P. Singh, N. Sharma, S. Sharma



TBM (Tuberculous meningitis) is severe form of tuberculosis causing death of one third of the affected individuals or leaving two-third of the survivors disabled. MMP-9 (Matrix metalloproteinase-9) is produced by the central nervous system in a variety of inflammatory conditions and has a role in the breakdown of extracellular matrix and blood–brain barrier.


In this study, the levels of MMP-9 and its inhibitor, TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1), were screened using zymography and reverse zymography in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of tuberculous meningitis patients at different stages of the disease. Further, role of MMP-9 as therapeutic target was studied in C6 glioma cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Cells were treated with dexamethasone or SB-3CT (specific inhibitor of MMP-9) in combination with conventional antitubercular drugs.


MMP-9 levels in patients were increased as the disease progressed to advanced stages. The infection led to increased MMP-9 levels in C6 glioma cells and specific inhibition of MMP-9 by SB-3CT augmented bacillary clearance when used along with antitubercular drugs.


MMP-9 plays a prominent role in progression of tuberculous meningitis from initial to advanced stages. Increased levels of MMP-9 during advancement of the disease leads to degeneration of nervous tissue and blood brain barrier disruption. Hence, MMP-9 can be considered as a therapeutic target for efficient management of TBM and can be explored to inhibit further progression of the disease if used at an early stage.
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