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01.11.2018 | Basic and Applied Science (I Lewkowich, Section Editor) | Ausgabe 11/2018

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 11/2018

TLR Activation and Allergic Disease: Early Life Microbiome and Treatment

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports > Ausgabe 11/2018
Kathryn R. Michels, Nicholas W. Lukacs, Wendy Fonseca
Wichtige Hinweise
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Basic and Applied Science


Purpose of Review

Allergy and asthma are growing problems in the developed world. The accelerated increase of these diseases may be related to microbiome modification that leads to aberrant activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Current research supports the concept that changes in microbial communities in early life impact TLR activation, resulting in an altered risk for the development of asthma and allergies.

Recent Findings

Prenatal and early childhood events that generate microbiome modification are closely related with TLR activation. Early childhood exposure to a rich array of TLR agonists, particularly lipopolysaccharide, strongly predicts protection against allergic disease later in life even when other lifestyle factors are accounted for. Genetic deletion of TLR signaling components in mice results in reduced function of tolerogenic cell populations in the gut. In contrast, weak TLR signaling can promote allergic sensitization later in life.


This review summarizes the role of TLR signaling in microbiome-mediated protection against allergy.

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