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01.12.2018 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Ophthalmology 1/2018

TLR4 modulates inflammatory gene targets in the retina during Bacillus cereus endophthalmitis

Zeitschrift:
BMC Ophthalmology > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
Phillip S. Coburn, Frederick C. Miller, Austin L. LaGrow, Salai Madhumathi Parkunan, C. Blake Randall, Rachel L. Staats, Michelle C. Callegan
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12886-018-0764-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Background

Endophthalmitis is a serious intraocular infection that frequently results in significant inflammation and vision loss. Because current therapeutics are often unsuccessful in mitigating damaging inflammation during endophthalmitis, more rational targets are needed. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize specific motifs on invading pathogens and initiate the innate inflammatory response. We reported that TLR4 contributes to the robust inflammation which is a hallmark of Bacillus cereus endophthalmitis. To identify novel, targetable host inflammatory factors in this disease, we performed microarray analysis to detect TLR4-dependent changes to the retinal transcriptome during B. cereus endophthalmitis.

Results

C57BL/6 J and TLR4−/− mouse eyes were infected with B. cereus and retinas were harvested at 4 h postinfection, a time representing the earliest onset of neutrophil infiltration. Genes related to acute inflammation and inflammatory cell recruitment including CXCL1 (KC), CXCL2 (MIP2-α), CXCL10 (IP-10), CCL2 (MCP1), and CCL3 (MIP1-α)) were significantly upregulated 5-fold or greater in C57BL/6 J retinas. The immune modulator IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM1, and the inhibitor of cytokine signal transduction SOCS3 were upregulated 25-, 11-, and 10-fold, respectively, in these retinas. LIF, which is crucial for photoreceptor cell survival, was increased 6-fold. PTGS2/COX-2, which converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin endoperoxide H2, was upregulated 9-fold. PTX3, typically produced in response to TLR engagement, was induced 15-fold. None of the aforementioned genes were upregulated in TLR4−/− retinas following B. cereus infection.

Conclusions

Our results have identified a cohort of mediators driven by TLR4 that may be important in regulating pro-inflammatory and protective pathways in the retina in response to B. cereus intraocular infection. This supports the prospect that blocking the activation of TLR-based pathways might serve as alternative targets for Gram-positive and Gram-negative endophthalmitis therapies in general.
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