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Many plants of genus Cordia are traditionally used as astringent, anti-inflammatory, anthelminthic, antimalarial, diuretic, febrifuge, appetite suppressant and cough suppressant and to treat urinary infections, lung diseases and leprosy. The aim of the study is to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of total ethanol extract and different fractions of C. myxa L. leaves, in addition to evaluation of some pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antidiabetic effects.
Air dried powder of C. myxa leaves were extracted using 95% ethanol and fractionated successively with petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and finally with n-butanol. The fractions were concentrated and then investigated for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antidiabetic activities using phosphomolybidinum and DPPH assays, carrageenan-induced paw edema, hot plate, yeast -induced pyrexia and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia methods, respectively.
The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity with high phenolic and flavonoid contents (31.03 ± 0.15 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried weight and 811.91 ± 0.07 mg rutin equivalent/g dried weight, respectively). Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited higher anti-inflammatory activity with percentages of inhibition 45.16% and 40.26%, respectively, which were quite comparable to that of indomethacin (51.61%). The petroleum ether and dichloromethane fractions showed the highest analgesic activity with reaction time 289.00 ± 3.00 and 288.33 ± 20.82, respectively. Evaluation of antipyretic activity revealed that the total ethanol extract and different fractions showed high antipyretic activities after 2 h, which were very close to that of the standard acetyl salicylic acid with a rapid onset (30 min). The total ethanol extract and the petroleum ether fraction exhibited the most potent hypoglycemic effect with a significant reduction in blood glucose level especially after 3 h to 95.67 ± 5.77 mg/dl and 87.67 ± 10.26 mg/dl, respectively and percentages decrease in blood glucose level were 68.22% and 70.78%, respectively.
Cordia myxa L. extract and fractions exhibited antioxidant, anti-inflammatory analgesic, antipyretic and antidiabetic activities which may be attributed by the presence of active phytoconstituents.