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27.06.2019 | Review Article | Ausgabe 12/2019

Clinical Pharmacokinetics 12/2019

Towards Personalized Antithrombotic Treatments: Focus on P2Y12 Inhibitors and Direct Oral Anticoagulants

Zeitschrift:
Clinical Pharmacokinetics > Ausgabe 12/2019
Autoren:
Jean Terrier, Youssef Daali, Pierre Fontana, Chantal Csajka, Jean-Luc Reny

Abstract

Oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs are commonly prescribed to lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as venous and arterial thrombosis, which represent the leading causes of mortality worldwide. A significant percentage of patients taking antithrombotics will nevertheless experience bleeding or recurrent ischemic events, and this represents a major public health issue. Cardiovascular medicine is now questioning the one-size-fits-all policy, and more personalized approaches are increasingly being considered. However, the available tools are currently limited and they are only moderately able to predict clinical events or have a significant impact on clinical outcomes. Predicting concentrations of antithrombotics in blood could be an effective means of personalization as they have been associated with bleeding and recurrent ischemia. Target concentration interventions could take advantage of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and population-based pharmacokinetic (POPPK) models, which are increasingly used in clinical settings and have attracted the interest of governmental regulatory agencies, to propose dosages adapted to specific population characteristics. These models have the benefit of combining parameters from different sources, such as experimental in vitro data and patients’ demographic, genetic, and physiological in vivo data, to characterize the dose–concentration relationships of compounds of interest. As such, they can be used to predict individual drug exposure. In the near future, these models could therefore be a valuable means of predicting personalized antithrombotic blood concentrations and, hopefully, of preventing clinical non-response or bleeding in a given patient. Existing approaches for personalization of antithrombotic prescriptions will be reviewed using practical examples for P2Y12 inhibitors and direct oral anticoagulants. The review will additionally focus on the existing PBPK and POPPK models for these two categories of drugs. Lastly, we address potential scenarios for their implementation in clinics, along with the main limitations and challenges.

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Acknowledgement to Referees