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01.12.2018 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

Journal of Medical Case Reports 1/2018

Transabdominal two-cavity approach for radical nephrectomy combined with inferior vena cava thrombectomy for malignant thrombus caused by renal cell carcinoma: a case series

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Medical Case Reports > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
R. Novotny, J. Chlupac, T. Marada, V. Borovicka, V. Vik, L. Voska, L. Janousek, Jiri Fronek

Abstract

Background

Advanced renal cell carcinoma in some cases causes malignant intravascular thrombus with the potential for growth into the inferior vena cava or even the right atrium. Renal cell carcinoma is accompanied by malignant intravascular thrombus in up to 10% of cases. We present an overview of three patients diagnosed as having renal cell carcinoma with malignant intravascular thrombus requiring radical nephrectomy combined with inferior vena cava thrombectomy.

Case presentation

Three patients diagnosed as having renal cell carcinoma were indicated for renal cell carcinoma combined with inferior vena cava thrombectomy between 2014 and 2017 at our department: a 69-year-old white Caucasian woman, a 74-year-old white Caucasian woman, and a 58-year-old white Caucasian woman. According to the Novick classification of inferior vena cava tumor thrombus, there was one infrahepatic (level II) and two supradiaphragmatic (level IV) malignant intravascular thrombi. The average age of these patients was 67 years (range 58–74 years). All patients underwent radical nephrectomy combined with inferior vena cava thrombectomy through transabdominal approach. In patients with level IV malignant intravascular thrombus, transesophageal echocardiogram was used to guide the placement of the inferior vena cava cross-clamp above the diaphragm. In one patient the pericardium was opened to place a cross-clamp above a tumor just below the right atrium.
There were no postoperative mortalities to date with an average follow-up of 23 months (range 2–48 months). To date, no patient has demonstrated recurrent inferior vena cava malignant intravascular thrombus requiring secondary inferior vena cava thrombectomy or any other treatment. A comparison of estimated blood loss and transfusion rate was not significantly different in all three cases.

Conclusion

Despite the technical complexity of the procedure, caval thrombectomy combined with radical nephrectomy currently represents the only radical treatment for renal cell carcinoma accompanied by malignant intravascular thrombus with good mid-term oncological outcomes.

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