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19.02.2021 | Invited Review Article

Translating genetic association of lipid levels for biological and clinical application

Zeitschrift:
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Autoren:
Bradley Crone, Amelia M. Krause, Whitney E. Hornsby, Cristen J. Willer, Ida Surakka
Wichtige Hinweise

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Abstract

Purpose of review

This review focuses on the foundational evidence from the last two decades of lipid genetics research and describes the current status of data-driven approaches for transethnic GWAS, fine-mapping, transcriptome informed fine-mapping, and disease prediction.

Recent findings

Current lipid genetics research aims to understand the association mechanisms and clinical relevance of lipid loci as well as to capture population specific associations found in global ancestries. Recent genome-wide trans-ethnic association meta-analyses have identified 118 novel lipid loci reaching genome-wide significance. Gene-based burden tests of whole exome sequencing data have identified three genes—PCSK9, LDLR, and APOB—with significant rare variant burden associated with familial dyslipidemia. Transcriptome-wide association studies discovered five previously unreported lipid-associated loci. Additionally, the predictive power of genome-wide genetic risk scores amalgamating the polygenic determinants of lipid levels can potentially be used to increase the accuracy of coronary artery disease prediction.

Conclusions

Lipids are one of the most successful group of traits in the era of genome-wide genetic discovery for identification of novel loci and plausible drug targets. However, a substantial fraction of lipid trait heritability remains unexplained. Further analysis of diverse ancestries and state of the art methods for association locus refinement could potentially reveal some of this missing heritability and increase the clinical application of the genomic association results.

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