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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1/2012

Translation and validation of the EORTC brain cancer module (EORTC QLQ-BN20) for use in Iran

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes > Ausgabe 1/2012
Alireza Khoshnevisan, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Shahab Kamali Ardakani, Amir H Pakpour, Azam Mardani, Neil K Aaronson
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1477-7525-10-54) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors' contributions

AKh and AHP were responsible for designing the study, analyzing and interpreting the data, and drafting the manuscript. ShKA and AM were responsible for data collection. NKA interpreted the data, and revised the manuscript. The analyses were performed by MY. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.



The aim of this study was to translate the EORTC quality of life questionnaire for brain cancer, the QLQ-BN20, into Persian, and to evaluate its psychometric properties when used among brain cancer patients in Iran.


A standard backward and forward translation procedure was used to generate the Persian language version of the QLQ-BN20. The QLQ-BN20 was administered together with the QLQ-C30 to 194 patients diagnosed with primary brain cancer. Multitrait scaling and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to evaluate the hypothesized scale structure of the questionnaire. Internal consistency reliability was estimated with Cronbach’s alpha. The ability of the QLQ-BN20 to distinguish between patient subgroups formed on the basis of performance status and cognitive status was evaluated, as was the responsiveness of the questionnaire to changes in performance status over time.


Multitrait scaling and CFA results confirmed the hypothesized scale structure. The measurement model was consistent across men and women. Internal consistency reliability of the multi-item scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.89. The QLQ-BN20 distinguished clearly between patients with relatively good versus poor performance and cognitive status, and changes in scores over time reflected changes observed in performance status ratings.


These results support the validity and reliability of the QLQ-BN20 for use among Iranian patients diagnosed with primary brain cancer. Future studies should examine the psychometrics of the questionnaire when used in patients with brain metastasis.
Authors’ original file for figure 1
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