15.02.2016 | Original Article
Trauma team activation criteria in managing trauma patients at an emergency room in Thailand
European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
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Trauma team activation (TTA) criteria were first implemented in the Emergency Department (ED) of Songklanagarind Hospital in 2009 to treat severe trauma patients.
To determine the efficacy of the TTA criteria on the acute trauma care process in the ED and the 28-day mortality rate.
A 1-year prospective cohort study was conducted at the ED. Trauma patients who were 18 years old and over who met the TTA criteria were enrolled. Demographic data, physiologic parameters, ED length of stay (EDLOS), and the injury severity score (ISS) were recorded. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the factors affecting 28-day mortality. Institutional review board approval was obtained from the Prince of Songkla University.
A total of 80 patients (74 male and 6 female) were eligible with a mean age of 34.3 years old. Shock, penetrating torso injury, and pulse rate >120 beats per minute were the three most common criteria for trauma team consultation. At the ED, 9 patients (11.3 %) were non-survivors, 30 patients (37.5 %) needed immediate operation, and 41 patients (51.2 %) were admitted. All of the arrest patients died (p < 0.0001). The median time of EDLOS was 85 min: 68 min in the non-survivor group and 120 min in the survivor group (p = 0.028). The median ISS was 21.0 (1–75): 25.0 in the non-survivor group and 17.0 in the survivor group. When compared with pilot data prior to TTA implementation, the median time of EDLOS improved from 184 to 85 min and the 28-day mortality rate decreased from 66.7 to 46.3 %. The high ISS was a predictor of death.
The trauma team activation criteria improved acute trauma care in the ED which was demonstrated by the decreased EDLOS and mortality rate. A high ISS is the sole parameter predicting mortality.