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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Oral Health 1/2015

Treatment time for non-surgical endodontic therapy with or without a magnifying loupe

BMC Oral Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Amy Wai-yee Wong, Xiaofei Zhu, Shinan Zhang, Samantha Ka-yan Li, Chengfei Zhang, Chun-Hung Chu
Wichtige Hinweise
Xiaofei Zhu, Shinan Zhang, Samantha Ka-yan Li, Chengfei Zhang and Chun-Hung Chu contributed equally to this work.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

AWW was the primary researcher in Hong Kong. XZ was the project dentist in charge in Beijing. SZ assisted the clinical trial. SKL performed the statistical analysis of the study. CZ and CC planned the study and contributed equally to its supervision. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Authors’ information

Dr. A. W. Wong is a PhD student, Ms. S. K. Li is a statistician, Dr S Zhang is the project co-ordinator and Drs. C. H. Chu and C. Zhang are clinical associate professors in the Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong. Dr X. Zhu is a clinical associate professor in the School and Hospital of Stomatology Special Service Clinic, Peking University.



Use of magnifying loupe may increase the efficiency of dental care. This clinical trial compared the time in performing non-surgical endodontic therapy with or without the use of a magnifying loupe.


Patients who required primary endodontic treatment in clinical trial centres at the University of Hong Kong (HKU) in Hong Kong and Peking University (PKU) in Beijing were invited to participate in this study. Two HKU dentists and 2 PKU dentists, forming 2 pairs of dentists with similar years of clinical experience, performed endodontic treatments according to the same procedures and used the same materials, either in single or multiple visits. They had no prior experience with the use of a magnifying loupe. One dentist from each pair was trained to use a magnifying loupe (x2.5). The treatment time was recorded.


Eighty-four PKU patients with a mean age of 42.8 years and 98 HKU patients with a mean age of 46.0 years were recruited in this study. Ninety-six teeth were treated with a magnifying loupe and 86 teeth were treated without a magnifying loupe. The results showed that treatment time was not associated with age, gender, tooth vitality, or the presence of apical radiolucency or sinus tract. The results of ANCOVA revealed the treatment time was associated with the clinic (HKU or PKU), root canal system (single or multiple), presence of preoperative pain, treatment visit (single or multiple), the use of a magnifying loupe, and the experience of the operator.


In this study, the use of a magnifying loupe could significantly reduce the endodontic treatment time.

Trial registration

Clinical Trials ChiCTR-IOR-15005988 registered 15 February 2015.
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