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01.11.2018 | Psychological Aspects of Cardiovascular Diseases (A Steptoe, Section Editor) | Ausgabe 11/2018 Open Access

Current Cardiology Reports 11/2018

Type D Personality as a Risk Factor in Coronary Heart Disease: a Review of Current Evidence

Current Cardiology Reports > Ausgabe 11/2018
Nina Kupper, Johan Denollet
Wichtige Hinweise
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Psychological Aspects of Cardiovascular Diseases


Purpose of the Review

This review article synthesizes recent research findings on the psychological context of Type D personality and the mechanisms through which Type D affects disease progression and prognosis among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).

Recent Findings

One in four patients with CHD has a Distressed (Type D) personality, which is characterized by two stable traits: social inhibition and negative affectivity. Type D personality predicts increased mortality and morbidity burden, and poorer health-related quality of life. Type D is part of a family of psychosocial risk factors that affect CHD prognosis. The pattern of co-occurrence of these psychosocial factors and intra-individual differences in psychosocial profiles may affect risk prediction accuracy. Multiple biological and behavioral processes have been associated with Type D personality.


Identifying pathways explaining the observed associations between Type D personality and CHD is important to improve etiological and pathophysiological knowledge and to design personalized interventions, and targeting specific risk-associated pathways.

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