The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
SO carried out molecular genetic studies and statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript, HT performed statistical analysis and interpretation of the data, KS and HS participated in the design of the study, provided direction, and helped revise the final manuscript, MRS and PD coordinated volunteers recruitment, performed clinical assessments and data analysis, WA and CAF carried out some of the genetic analysis, and helped revise the manuscript, SGM designed the study, performed data analysis and interpretation of the data, provided direction, and revised the final manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene polymorphisms have been reported as genetic risk factors for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined the association of commonly observed UCP2 G(−866)A (rs659366) and Ala55Val (C > T) (rs660339) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity, high fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids in a Balinese population.
A total of 603 participants (278 urban and 325 rural subjects) were recruited from Bali Island, Indonesia. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) were measured. Obesity was determined based on WHO classifications for adult Asians. Participants were genotyped for G(−866)A and Ala55Val polymorphisms of the UCP2 gene.
Obesity prevalence was higher in urban subjects (51%) as compared to rural subjects (23%). The genotype, minor allele (MAF), and heterozygosity frequencies were similar between urban and rural subjects for both SNPs. All genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A combined analysis of genotypes and environment revealed that the urban subjects carrying the A/A genotype of the G(−866)A SNP have higher BMI than the rural subjects with the same genotype. Since the two SNPs showed strong linkage disequilibrium (D’ = 0.946, r2 = 0.657), a haplotype analysis was performed. We found that the AT haplotype was associated with high BMI only when the urban environment was taken into account.
We have demonstrated the importance of environmental settings in studying the influence of the common UCP2 gene polymorphisms in the development of obesity in a Balinese population.
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- Uncoupling protein 2 gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity
Clarissa A Febinia
Made R Saraswati
Safarina G Malik
- BioMed Central
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