The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12879-017-2349-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Respiratory morbidity in Australian Indigenous children is higher than their non-Indigenous counterparts, irrespective of urban or remote residence. There are limited studies addressing acute respiratory illness (ARI) in urban Indigenous children, particularly those that address the upper airway microbiome and its relationship to disease. We aimed to describe the prevalence of upper airway viruses and bacteria in symptomatic and asymptomatic urban-based Australian Indigenous children aged less than 5 years.
A cross-sectional analysis of data collected at baseline in an ongoing prospective cohort study of urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children registered with a primary health care service in the northern suburbs of Brisbane, Australia. Clinical, demographic and epidemiological data and bilateral anterior nasal swabs were collected on enrolment. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on nasal swabs to detect 17 respiratory viruses and 7 bacteria. The primary outcome was the prevalence of these microbes at enrolment. Logistic regression was performed to investigate differences in microbe prevalence between children with and without acute respiratory illness with cough as a symptom (ARIwC) at time of specimen collection.
Between February 2013 and October 2015, 164 children were enrolled. The median age at enrolment was 18.0 months (IQR 7.2–34.3), 49.4% were boys and 56 children (34.2%) had ARIwC. Overall, 133/164 (81%) nasal swabs were positive for at least one organism; 131 (79.9%) for any bacteria, 59 (36.2%) for any virus and 57 (34.8%) for both viruses and bacteria. Co-detection of viruses and bacteria was more common in females than males (61.4% vs 38.6%, p = 0.044). No microbes, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with the presence of ARIwC.
The prevalence of upper airways microbes in asymptomatic children is similar to non-Indigenous children with ARIwC from the same region. Determining the aetiology of ARIwC in this community is complicated by the high prevalence of multiple respiratory pathogens in the upper airways.
Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Registration Number: 12,614,001,214,628. Retrospectively registered.
Additional file 1: Table S1. Codetection of upper airway viruses and bacteria in 164 urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children (DOCX 93 kb).12879_2017_2349_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Australian Institute of Health & Welfare. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health performance framework 2014 report: detailed analyses. Cat. No. IHW 167. Canberra: Australian Government; 2015.
O'Grady KAF, Chang AB. Lower respiratory infections in Australian indigenous children. J Paediatr Child H. 2010;46(9):461–5. CrossRef
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Estimates of aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, June 2011. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics; 2013.
Britt H, Miller GC, Henderson J, Bayram C, Harrison C, Valenti L, Wong C, Gordon J, Pollack AJ, Pan Y, et al. General practice activity in Australia 2014–2015. In: General practice series number 38. Sydney: The University of Sydney. p. 2015.
Chang AB, Smith-Vaughan H, Sloots TP, Valery PC, Whiley D, Beissbarth J, Torzillo PJ. Upper airway viruses and bacteria detection in clinical pneumonia in a population with high nasal colonisation do not relate to clinical signs. Pneumonia. 2015;6:48–6. CrossRef
O'Grady KA, Torzillo PJ, Rockett RJ, Whiley DM, Nissen MD, Sloots TP, Lambert SB. Successful application of a simple specimen transport method for the conduct of respiratory virus surveillance in remote indigenous communities in Australia. Tropical Med Int Health. 2011;16(6):766–72. CrossRef
O'Grady KF, Grimwood K, Sloots TP, Whiley DM, Acworth JP, Phillips N, Goyal V, Chang AB. Prevalence, codetection and seasonal distribution of upper airway viruses and bacteria in children with acute respiratory illnesses with cough as a symptom. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016;22(6):527–34. CrossRefPubMed
O’Grady KF, Grimwood K, Sloots TP. Upper airway viruses and bacteria and clinical outcomes in children with cough. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016. in press.
O’Grady KA, Torzillo PJ, Chang AB. Hospitalisation of indigenous children in the northern Territory for lower respiratory illness in the first year of life. Med J Aust. 2010;192(10):586–90. PubMed
Leach AJ, Wigger C, Beissbarth J, Woltring D, Andrews R, Chatfield MD, Smith-Vaughan H, Morris PS. General health, otitis media, nasopharyngeal carriage and middle ear microbiology in northern Territory aboriginal children vaccinated during consecutive periods of 10-valent or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;86:224–32. CrossRefPubMed
Moore HC, Jacoby P, Taylor A, Harnett G, Bowman J, Riley TV, Reuter K, Smith DW, Lehmann D. The interaction between respiratory viruses and pathogenic bacteria in the upper respiratory tract of asymptomatic aboriginal and non-aboriginal children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29(6):540–5. PubMed
Shi T, McLean K, Campbell H, Nair H. Aetiological role of common respiratory viruses in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Global Health. 2015;5(1):010408. CrossRef
Australian Institute of Health & Welfare. The health and welfare of Australia’s aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: 2015. Canberra: Australian Government; 2015.
- Upper airway viruses and bacteria in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Brisbane, Australia: a cross-sectional study
Kerry-Ann F. O’Grady
Kerry K. Hall
Theo P. Sloots
Anne B. Chang
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
Mail Icon II