Chi Chiu Mok and Samar Soliman are co-first authors
Chi Chiu Mok and Chandra Mohan are co-senior authors
The aim was to study urinary angiostatin, CXC chemokine ligand 4 (CXCL4) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) as biomarkers of renal disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Patients who fulfilled ≥ 4 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for SLE with active renal, active non-renal or inactive disease, and a group of healthy controls were studied. Urine samples were assayed for angiostatin, CXCL4 and VCAM-1 by ELISA, and normalized by creatinine. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to obtain the best cutoff values to calculate the performance of these markers in differentiating the different groups of patients as compared to anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) and complement C3. Correlation between these urinary biomarkers and various renal parameters was also tested.
Patients with SLE (n = 227; 80 with inactive SLE, 67 with active non-renal disease and 80 with active renal disease; 94% women; age 39.2 ± 13.8 years) and 53 controls (96% women) were studied. All were ethnic Chinese. Urinary angiostatin, CXCL4 and VCAM-1 (normalized for creatinine) were significantly higher in patients with active renal disease than in patients with active non-renal disease, patients with inactive SLE and controls. These markers correlated significantly with total SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and renal SLEDAI scores, and with the urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio. Urine angiostatin exhibited higher specificity and sensitivity in differentiating active renal from active non-renal SLE (area under the curve (AUC) 0.87) than serum anti-dsDNA/C3. Urine CXCL4 (AUC 0.64) and VCAM-1 (AUC 0.73), on the other hand, performed similarly to anti-dsDNA/C3. All three markers performed comparably to anti-dsDNA/C3 in distinguishing active from inactive SLE. In a subgroup of 68 patients with paired renal biopsy, the urinary levels of these proteins did not differ significantly between the proliferative and non-proliferative types of lupus nephritis. Urinary CXCL4 and VCAM-1 correlated significantly with the histologic activity score, and urinary angiostatin correlated significantly with proteinuria in this subgroup.
Urinary angiostatin, CXCL4 and VCAM-1 are potential biomarkers for SLE, in particular lupus nephritis. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to delineate the performance of these markers in predicting renal flares and prognosis in SLE patients.
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- Urinary angiostatin, CXCL4 and VCAM-1 as biomarkers of lupus nephritis
Chi Chiu Mok
Ling Yin Ho
Fatma A. Mohamed
Faten Ismail Mohamed
- BioMed Central
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