This article is part of the Topical Collection on Epidemiology
The purpose of this study is to critically assess recent studies concerning the use of probiotics to control periodontal diseases, dental caries and halitosis (oral malodour).
Clinical studies have shown that probiotics when allied to conventional periodontal treatment can ameliorate microbial dysbiosis and produce significant improvement in clinical indicators of disease. However, this effect is often not maintained by the host after the end of probiotic use. Current probiotics also show limited effects in treating caries and halitosis. Novel approaches based up on replacement therapy and using highly abundant health-associated oral species, including nitrate-reducing bacteria, have been proposed to improve persistence of probiotic strains and maintain oral health benefits.
Probiotics have potential in the management of multifactorial diseases such as the periodontal diseases and caries, by more effectively addressing the host-microbial interface to restore homeostasis that may not be achieved with conventional treatments.
Devine DA, Marsh PD. Prospects for the development of probiotics and prebiotics for oral applications. J Oral Microbiol. 2009;1:1–11. CrossRef
Montero E et al. Clinical and microbiological effects of the adjunctive use of probiotics in the treatment of gingivitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2017.
Iwasaki K, et al. Daily intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 decreases the probing depth in patients undergoing supportive periodontal therapy. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2016;14(3):207–14. PubMed
Alkaya B, et al. Clinical effects of probiotics containing Bacillus species on gingivitis: a pilot randomized controlled trial. J Periodontal Res. 2016:497–504.
Szkaradkiewicz AK, Stopa J, Karpiński TM. Effect of oral administration involving a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus reuteri on pro-inflammatory cytokine response in patients with chronic periodontitis. Arch Immunol Ther Exp. 2014;62(6):495–500. CrossRef
Vivekananda MR, Vandana KL, Bhat KG. Effect of the probiotic Lactobacilli reuteri (prodentis) in the management of periodontal disease: a preliminary randomized clinical trial. J Oral Microbiol. 2010;2:1–9. CrossRef
Bidault P, Chandad F, Grenier D. Risk of bacterial resistance associated with systemic antibiotic therapy in periodontology. J Can Dent Assoc. 2007;73(8):721–5. PubMed
Toiviainen A, et al. Impact of orally administered lozenges with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 on the number of salivary mutans streptococci, amount of plaque, gingival inflammation and the oral microbiome in healthy adults. Clin Oral Investig. 2014;12:77–83.
• Burton JP et al. Persistence of the Oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 is dose dependent and megaplasmid transfer can augment their bacteriocin production and adhesion characteristics. PLoS One. 2013;8(6). Study into increasing persistence of the highly abundant probiotic oral streptococcus, used in treating oral malodour and caries.
• Vestman NR, et al. Oral microbiota shift after 12-week supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and PTA 5289; a randomized control trial. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):1–18. High throughput sequencing study of community-wide changes in supragingival plaque microbiota with probiotic use, and follow up.
İnce G, et al. Clinical and biochemical evaluation of Lactobacillus reuteri containing lozenges as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2015;86(6):1–13.
Foureaux RDC, et al. Effects of probiotic therapy on metabolic and inflammatory parameters of rats with ligature-induced periodontitis associated with restraint stress. J Periodontol. 2014;85(7):975–83. CrossRef
Godoy L, et al. The probiotic mixture VSL#3 alters the morphology and secretion profile of both polarized and unpolarised human macrophages in a polarization-dependent manner. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2014;5(3)
Scully C, Greenman J. Halitosis (breath odor). Periodontol. 2008;48:66–75. CrossRef
Eren a M, et al. Oligotyping analysis of the human oral microbiome. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2014;111:2875–84. CrossRef
Iwamoto T, et al. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on halitosis and oral health: An open-label pilot trial. Oral Surgery, Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. Endodontology. 2010;110(2):201–8.
Jang HJ, et al. Comparative study on the characteristics of Weissella cibaria CMU and probiotic strains for oral care. Molecules. 2016;21(12)
Suzuki N et al. Inhibitory effect of enterococcus faecium wb2000 on volatile sulfur compound production by porphyromonas gingivalis. Int J Dent. 2016.
Keller MK, et al. Effect of chewing gums containing the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on oral malodour. Acta Odontol Scan. 2012;70(3):246–50. CrossRef
Marchetti E, et al. Multi-sensor approach for the monitoring of halitosis treatment via Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)-containing lozenges—a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sensors (Basel). 2015;15(8):19583–96. CrossRef
Sutula J, et al. The effect of a commercial probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on oral health in healthy dentate people. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2013;24:1–12.
Terai T, et al. Screening of probiotic candidates in human oral bacteria for the prevention of dental disease. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):1–20. CrossRef
Lundberg JO, et al. Nitrate, bacteria and human health. Nat Rev (Microbiol). 2004;2:1–10. CrossRef
Benjamin N, et al. Stomach NO synthesis. Nat. 1994;368:502. CrossRef
Doel JJ. Protective effect of salivary nitrate and microbial nitrate reductase activity against caries. Euro. J Oral Sci. 2004;112:424–8. CrossRef
Hussain QA, et al. Detection of adrenomedullin and nitric oxide in different forms of periodontal disease. J Perio Res. 2016;5:16–25. CrossRef
Hussain QA, et al. Regulation of adrenomedullin and nitric oxide production by periodontal bacteria. J Perio Res. 2015;50:650–7. CrossRef
Haukioja A. Probiotics and oral health. Euro. J Dent. 2010;4:348–55.
Pierro D, et al. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study. Clin Cosmet Invest Dent. 2015;7:107–13. CrossRef
- Use of Probiotics and Oral Health
Robert P. Allaker
Abish S. Stephen
- Springer International Publishing
Neu im Fachgebiet Zahnmedizin
Mail Icon II