The range shifter (RS) is used to treat shallow tumors for a proton pencil beam scanning system (PBS). Adding RS certainly complicates the commissioning of the treatment planning system (TPS) because the spot sizes are significantly enlarged with RS. In this work, we present an efficient method to configure a commercial TPS for a PBS system with a fixed RS.
By combining a spiral delivery with customized control points, we were able to significantly improve measurement efficiency and obtain 250 field size factors (FSF) within three hours. The measured FSFs were used to characterize the proton fluence and fit the parameters for the double-Gaussian fluence model used in the TPS. Extensive validation was performed using FSFs measured in air and in water, absolute doses of spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) fields, and the dose measurements carried out for patient-specific quality assurance (QA).
The measured in-air FSFs agreed with the model’s prediction within 3% for all 250 FSFs, and within 2 for 94% of the FSFs. The agreement between model’s prediction and measurement was within 2% for the in-air and in-water FSFs and the absolute doses for SOBP beams. The patient-specific QA of 113 fields showed an excellent gamma passing rates (96.95 ± 2.51%) for the absolute dose comparisons with gamma criteria of 2 mm and 2%.
The excellent agreement between the model’s prediction and measurements proved the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method of using FSFs to characterize the proton fluence and configure the TPS for a PBS system with fixed RS.
Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group: “Particle therapy facilities in operation: Information about technical equipment and patient statistics”. 2016 October 22, 2014]; Retrieved from http://ptcog.ch/index.php/facilities-in-operation]. Available from: http://ptcog.ch/index.php/facilities-in-operation.
Varian. Proton Algorithm Reference Guide. Palo Alto: Varian Medical Systems; 2015.
Lin LY, et al. Use of a novel two-dimensional ionization chamber array for pencil beam scanning proton therapy beam quality assurance. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2015;16(3):270–6. CrossRef
- Using field size factors to characterize the in-air fluence of a proton machine with a range shifter
Jarrod M. Lentz
Danairis Hernandez Morales
Joshua B. Stoker
- BioMed Central
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