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14.06.2016 | Gastrointestinal Oncology | Ausgabe 12/2016 Open Access

Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2016

Using the Comprehensive Complication Index to Assess the Impact of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy on Complication Severity After Esophagectomy for Cancer

Annals of Surgical Oncology > Ausgabe 12/2016
MD Nina Nederlof, BSc Annelijn E. Slaman, MD Pieter van Hagen, MD, PhD Ate van der Gaast, MD, PhD Ksenija Slankamenac, MD, PhD Suzanne S. Gisbertz, MD, PhD Jan J. B. van Lanschot, MD, PhD Bas P. L. Wijnhoven, MD, PhD Mark I. van Berge Henegouwen, CROSS-Study Group
Wichtige Hinweise
Nina Nederlof and Annelijn E. Slaman contributed equally to the study.
On behalf of the surgeons of the CROSS-Study Group. A complete list of the members of the CROSS-Study Group appears in the Acknowledgments section.



Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by surgery for patients with esophageal or junctional cancer has become a standard of care. The comprehensive complication index (CCI) has recently been developed and accounts for all postoperative complications. Hence, CCI better reflects the burden of all combined postoperative complications in surgical patients than the Clavien–Dindo score alone, which incorporates only the most severe complication. This study was designed to evaluate the severity of complications in patients treated with nCRT followed by esophagectomy versus in patients who underwent esophagectomy alone using the comprehensive complication index.


All patients included in the CROSS trial—a randomized, clinical trial on the value of nCRT followed by esophagectomy—were included. Complications were assessed and graded using the Clavien–Dindo classification. CCI was derived from these scores, using the CCI calculator available online (www.​assessurgery.​com). CCI of patients who underwent nCRT followed by surgery was compared with the CCI of patients who underwent surgery alone.


In both groups 161 patients were included. The median (and interquartile range) CCI of patients with nCRT and surgery was 26.22 (17.28–42.43) versus 25.74 (8.66–43.01) in patients who underwent surgery alone (p = 0.58). There also was no difference in CCI between subgroups of patients with anastomotic leakage, pulmonary complications, cardiac complications, thromboembolic events, chyle leakage, and wound infections.


Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy according to CROSS did not have a negative impact on postoperative complication severity expressed by CCI compared with patients who underwent surgery alone for potentially curable esophageal or junctional cancer.

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