The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11121-016-0696-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, we studied factors related to parental intention to participate in parenting programs and examined the moderating effects of parent gender on these factors. Participants were a community sample of 290 mothers and 290 fathers of 5- to 10-year-old children. Parents completed a set of questionnaires assessing child emotional and behavioral difficulties and the HBM constructs concerning perceived program benefits and barriers, perceived child problem susceptibility and severity, and perceived self-efficacy. The hypothesized model was evaluated using structural equation modeling. The results showed that, for both mothers and fathers, perceived program benefits were associated with higher intention to participate in parenting programs. In addition, higher intention to participate was associated with lower perceived barriers only in the sample of mothers and with higher perceived self-efficacy only in the sample of fathers. No significant relations were found between intention to participate and perceived child problem susceptibility and severity. Mediation analyses indicated that, for both mothers and fathers, child emotional and behavioral problems had an indirect effect on parents’ intention to participate by increasing the level of perceived benefits of the program. As a whole, the proposed model explained about 45 % of the variance in parental intention to participate. The current study suggests that mothers and fathers may be motivated by different factors when making their decision to participate in a parenting program. This finding can inform future parent engagement strategies intended to increase both mothers’ and fathers’ participation rates in parenting programs.
ESM 1 (PDF 423 kb)11121_2016_696_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2010). Weighted least squares estimation with missing data. Mplus Technical Appendix, 1–10.
Bayley, J., Wallace, L. M., & Choudhry, K. (2009). Fathers and parenting programmes: Barriers and best practice. Community Practitioner, 82, 28–31. PubMed
Edlund, J., & Öun, I. (2016). Who should work and who should care? Attitudes towards the desirable division of labour between mothers and fathers in five European countries. Acta Sociologica. doi: 10.1177/0001699316631024
Hancock, G. R., & Mueller, R. O. (2001). Rethinking construct reliability within latent variable systems. In R. Cudeck, S. du Toit, & D. Sörbom (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: Present and future. A Festschrift honoring Karl G. Jöreskog (pp. 195–216). Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International.
Hox, J. (2010). Multilevel analysis: Techniques and applications (2nd ed.). NY: Routledge.
Janz, N. K., Champion, V. L., & Strecher, V. J. (2002). The health belief model. In K. Glanz, G. K. Rimer, & F. M. Lewis (Eds.), Health behavior and health education: Theory research and practice (3rd ed., pp. 45–66). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). NY: Guilford Press.
Lamb, M. E. (2010). The role of the father in child development. Hoboken: Wiley.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user’s guide: Statistical analysis with latent variables. Muthén & Muthén, Los Angeles, CA
Muthén, B. O., du Toit, S. H. C., & Spisic, D. (1997). Robust inference using weighted least squares and quadratic estimating equations in latent variable modeling with categorical variables. http://www.statmodel.com/bmuthen/articles/Article_075.pdf.
Panter-Brick, C., Burgess, A., Eggerman, M., McAllister, F., Pruett, K., & Leckman, J. F. (2014). Practitioner review: Engaging fathers—recommendations for a game change in parenting interventions based on a systematic review of the global evidence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 1187–1212. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12280. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A. von Eye & C. C. Clogg (Eds.), Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399–419). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.
Schwarzer, R., & Fuchs, R. (1995). Changing risk behaviors and adopting health behaviors: The role of self-efficacy beliefs. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Self-efficacy in changing societies (pp. 259–288). NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Spoth, R. L., Clair, S., Greenberg, M., Redmond, C., & Shin, C. (2007). Toward dissemination of evidence-based family interventions: Maintenance of community-based partnership recruitment results and associated factors. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 137–146. doi: 10.1037/0893-3188.8.131.52. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Statistics Sweden. (2014). Women and men in Sweden 2014. Örebro: SCB-Tryck.
- Using the Health Belief Model to Explain Mothers’ and Fathers’ Intention to Participate in Universal Parenting Programs
- Springer US