The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2040-2392-5-18) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
BSP and KW carried out the statistical analysis. BSP, DME, JPK, SMR and WLM were involved in the preparation of the genotype information. BSP, DHS, WPM and GDS participated in the design of the study. BSP, DHS, WPM, KW, HH, NJT, DMW, JPK, JG and GDS helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Social-communication abilities are heritable traits, and their impairments overlap with the autism continuum. To characterise the genetic architecture of social-communication difficulties developmentally and identify genetic links with the autistic dimension, we conducted a genome-wide screen of social-communication problems at multiple time-points during childhood and adolescence.
Social-communication difficulties were ascertained at ages 8, 11, 14 and 17 years in a UK population-based birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; N ≤ 5,628) using mother-reported Social Communication Disorder Checklist scores. Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) was conducted for all phenotypes. The time-points with the highest GCTA heritability were subsequently analysed for single SNP association genome-wide. Type I error in the presence of measurement relatedness and the likelihood of observing SNP signals near known autism susceptibility loci (co-location) were assessed via large-scale, genome-wide permutations. Association signals (P ≤ 10−5) were also followed up in Autism Genetic Resource Exchange pedigrees (N = 793) and the Autism Case Control cohort (Ncases/Ncontrols = 1,204/6,491).
GCTA heritability was strongest in childhood (h2(8 years) = 0.24) and especially in later adolescence (h2(17 years) = 0.45), with a marked drop during early to middle adolescence (h2(11 years) = 0.16 and h2(14 years) = 0.08). Genome-wide screens at ages 8 and 17 years identified for the latter time-point evidence for association at 3p22.2 near SCN11A (rs4453791, P = 9.3 × 10−9; genome-wide empirical P = 0.011) and suggestive evidence at 20p12.3 at PLCB1 (rs3761168, P = 7.9 × 10−8; genome-wide empirical P = 0.085). None of these signals contributed to risk for autism. However, the co-location of population-based signals and autism susceptibility loci harbouring rare mutations, such as PLCB1, is unlikely to be due to chance (genome-wide empirical Pco-location = 0.007).
Our findings suggest that measurable common genetic effects for social-communication difficulties vary developmentally and that these changes may affect detectable overlaps with the autism spectrum.
Additional file 1: Additional Note. Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis. Table S1. Temporal stability of social-communication problems. Table S2. Genetic correlations. Table S3. Genome-wide association signals for social-communication problems at single time-points. Table S4. Longitudinal analysis of the strongest single time-point association signals. Table S5. Functional characterisation of non-coding variation near rs4453791. Table S6. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis. Table S7. Follow-up analysis of social-communication related signals in autism samples. Figure S1. Quantile-quantile plots of genome-wide association signals. (DOCX 118 KB)13229_2013_113_MOESM1_ESM.docx
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- Variability in the common genetic architecture of social-communication spectrum phenotypes during childhood and adolescence
Beate St Pourcain
David H Skuse
William P Mandy
Nicholas J Timpson
David M Evans
John P Kemp
Susan M Ring
Wendy L McArdle
George Davey Smith
- BioMed Central
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