The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
EOD conceived the study concept and participated in its design and drafting of manuscript. DDY participated in the design, coordination of study and drafting of manuscript. SND carried out laboratory analysis and drafting of the manuscript. WD carried out sampling and running of immunoassays and read the manuscript. AAAA and NA participated in the statistical analysis and interpretation of data. NYAB, FAB and SPS participated equally in the design, manuscript editing and overall concept. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
A surge in pro-inflammatory markers, Il-6 and TNF-α, has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, there is no data on the dynamics of these markers in T2DM Ghanaian populations. The aim of this study was to determine variations in the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in T2DM patients. This study also examined the associations of IL-6 and TNF-α with anthropometric measurement and the effect of co-morbidity with hypertension using rural and urban dwellers in the Ashanti region, Ghana.
A nested case–control design using participants aged 25–70 years consisting of 77 T2DM ± hypertension patients and 112 controls were selected from a larger study on Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM). Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and body fat percentage were measured. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for glucose, IL-6 and TNF-α levels.
The median level of IL-6 was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) among rural dwellers compared to urban dwellers. Inversely, urban dwellers had significantly higher (p = 0.0424) median level of TNF-α compared to rural cases. No significant differences were observed in IL-6 (p = 0.3571) and TNF-α (p = 0.2581) among T2DM patients compared with T2DM ± hypertension patients. A weak negative correlation was found between IL-6 and BMI in urban T2DM.
The average level of IL-6 was higher in rural T2DM participants compared with those in urban setting. However, higher levels of TNF-α was observed among the study participants with T2DM in urban settings compared to those of rural. In this study, we observed that co-morbidity of hypertension had no significant effect on the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α. We are of the opinion that higher physical activity levels among rural particpants and high obesity levels in urabn participants explain the observation but needs more numbers to validate.
This study revealed that IL-6 levels were higher among rural dwellers than urban while TNF-α levels were higher in urban dwellers than rural in patients with T2DM. There was no association of body fat percentage and body mass index with IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Co-morbidity of hypertension with T2DM had no effect on IL-6 and TNF-α levels.
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- Variations in levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in type 2 diabetes mellitus between rural and urban Ashanti Region of Ghana
Samuel N. Darko
Denis D. Yar
Anthony Afum-Adjei Awuah
Samson P. Salifu
Nana Y. Awua-Boateng
- BioMed Central
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