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09.11.2019 Open Access

Various aspects of inflammation in heart failure

Heart Failure Reviews
Mieczysław Dutka, Rafał Bobiński, Izabela Ulman-Włodarz, Maciej Hajduga, Jan Bujok, Celina Pająk, Michał Ćwiertnia
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Despite significant advances in the prevention and treatment of heart failure (HF), the prognosis in patients who have been hospitalised on at least one occasion due to exacerbation of HF is still poor. Therefore, a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of HF is crucial in order to achieve better results in the treatment of this clinical syndrome. One of the areas that, for years, has aroused the interest of researchers is the activation of the immune system and the elevated levels of biomarkers of inflammation in patients with both ischaemic and non-ischaemic HF. Additionally, it is intriguing that the level of circulating pro-inflammatory biomarkers correlates with the severity of the disease and prognosis in this group of patients. Unfortunately, clinical trials aimed at assessing interventions to modulate the inflammatory response in HF have been disappointing, and the modulation of the inflammatory response has had either no effect or even a negative effect on the HF prognosis. The article presents a summary of current knowledge on the role of immune system activation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of HF. Understanding the immunological mechanisms pathogenetically associated with left ventricular remodelling and progression of HF may open up new therapeutic possibilities for HF.

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