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18.12.2017 | Original Article

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) tyrosine kinase signaling facilitates granulation tissue formation with recruitment of VEGFR1+ cells from bone marrow

Zeitschrift:
Anatomical Science International
Autoren:
Keiichi Park, Hideki Amano, Yoshiya Ito, Yoshio Mastui, Mariko Kamata, Yasuharu Yamazaki, Akira Takeda, Masabumi Shibuya, Masataka Majima

Abstract

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A facilitates wound healing. VEGF-A binds to VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2 and induces wound healing through the receptor’s tyrosine kinase (TK) domain. During blood flow recovery and lung regeneration, expression of VEGFR1 is elevated. However, the precise mechanism of wound healing, especially granulation formation on VEGFR1, is not well understood. We hypothesized that VEGFR1-TK signaling induces wound healing by promoting granulation tissue formation. A surgical sponge implantation model was made by implanting a sponge disk into dorsal subcutaneous tissue of mice. Granulation formation was estimated from the weight of the sponge and the granulation area from the immunohistochemical analysis of collagen I. The expression of fibroblast markers was estimated from the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and cellular fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) using real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and from the immunohistochemical analysis of S100A4. VEGFR1 TK knockout (TK−/−) mice exhibited suppressed granulation tissue formation compared to that in wild-type (WT) mice. Expression of FGF-2, TGF-β, and VEGF-A was significantly suppressed in VEGFR1 TK−/− mice, and the accumulation of VEGFR1+ cells in granulation tissue was reduced in VEGFR1 TK−/− mice compared to that in WT mice. The numbers of VEGFR1+ cells and S100A4+ cells derived from bone marrow (BM) were higher in WT mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic WT BM than in VEGFR1 TK−/− mice transplanted with GFP transgenic VEGFR1 TK−/− BM. These results indicated that VEGFR1-TK signaling induced the accumulation of BM-derived VEGFR1+ cells expressing F4/80 and S100A4 and contributed to granulation formation around the surgically implanted sponge area in a mouse model.

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